What are the benefits and disadvantages that a nurse practitioner might encounter when starting an independent practice?

DQ1: What are the benefits and disadvantages that a nurse practitioner might encounter when starting an independent practice? How might this differ from a collaborative practice?DQ2:In a physician practice, should nurse practitioners have insurance billing done under their names or should the billing being submitted under the physician’s name? Provide supportive information.

DQ3:What are the benefits or disadvantages of the nurse practitioner entry-level degree being at the doctorate level? What evidence, if any, has there been to support the use of Doctor of Nursing Practice degrees in place of master’s prepared nursing practitioners?

Dq4:Which networking organizations would be most beneficial to a private NP practice? Justify your rationale.

Nurse’s Notes

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TYPES OF BLOOD AND TRANSFUSIONS

TYPES OF BLOOD AND TRANSFUSIONS

Types of Blood and Transfusions
Almost all cells have numerous molecules on the surface. It includes the red blood cells. The molecules play an essential role in the interaction with immune system’s cells.

Each cell has multiple sites with each site serving as a residence for one of several related molecules. A molecule is each site is limited and unique. Each molecule that resides at a location is the blood type while a group of related molecules with similar characteristics allowing occupation of one site are the blood group. A person’s blood group is inherited. For instance, two series of blood types make up a blood group system called Rh or ABO systems.

The type of blood is responsible for interactions between the cells such as red blood cells and immune system. It is crucial that the blood type of the donor match with the recipient of the red blood cells. If they do not match, the immune system of a recipient will react by destroying the donor cells.

TYPES OF BLOOD
Human blood is in these four blood types. A, B, AB or O. In addition to the blood of a person being in one of the above types, the blood is one of these: Rh-positive and Rh-negative. For example, if your blood type is A, it is typed A positive or negative.

BLOOD TYPE DONOR AND RECIPIENT STATUS
TYPE O BLOOD –UNIVERSAL DONORS
Everyone can get type O negative blood during transfusion hence people with this blood type are universal donors. Type O negative becomes essential during emergencies such as terror attacks and big fires when there could be no time for testing the blood types of patients.

BLOOD TYPE AB-UNIVERSAL RECIPIENTS
People whose blot type is AB positive are universal recipients as they can receive any blood Type without any transfusion complications.

RH-POSITIVE
Rh positive people can receive both Rh-positive and Rh-negative blood without danger of rejection by antigens.

RH-NEGATIVE
A person with Rh-Negative blood can only receive Rh-Negative blood type. Its the type of blood that medics get from blood bank during emergencies when they do not have time for testing the Rh types

It s essential that all people know their blood type and carries a card with indication their type as part of the identification documents in case of an emergency. IT will save health care professionals time for testing or the need to use Type O when the recipient can receive another type.

TYPES OF TRANSFUSION
Health care professionals transfuse blood as a whole with all its parts or individual parts. It depends on the patient’s situation.

RED BLOOD TRANSFUSION
Red blood cells are the most common components for most transfusions. These are the cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to body organs and tissues. They also help the body to remove waste products and carbon dioxide.

The need to transfuse red blood cells occurs after loss of blood in surgery or accidents. Patients with severe anemia also need this type of transfusion as it lowers red blood cells to lower than normal level. Anemia also occurs when red blood cells lack enough hemoglobin an iron-rich protein that gives a red color to the blood and carries oxygen from lungs to other body parts.

PLASMA TRANSFUSIONS
The liquid part of the blood is the plasma. It is mainly water but also has many other components including:

Proteins
Hormones
Clotting factors
Vitamins
Sugars
Cholesterol
Calcium
Potassium
Sodium
Plasma transfusion is necessary after a liver failure, severe infection or bad burns.

PLATELETS AND CLOTTING FACTORS TRANSFUSION
Platelets and other clotting factors help to stop external and internal bleeding that you are unable to see. Some of the illnesses reduce the body’s ability to make enough clotting factors or platelets. Patients with such diseases require regular transfusions of these essential blood products.

For example, someone with hemophilia a rare bleeding disorder that occurs by inheritance from family line requires transfusion to replace special clotting factor to replace that which is lacking. Hemophilia causes longer bleeding after injury and internal bleeding, especially around joints.

Blood transfusions have been and will continue to be essential components of saving lives for patients with major blood loss or diseases that cause replenishing blood parts.

COMMON DIGESTIVE DISEASES

COMMON DIGESTIVE DISEASES

Common Digestive diseases
Digestion during a proper healthy state takes food through various processes from the moment of biting and chewing in the mouth to the elimination of undigested materials. It breaks down the food into smaller parts (nutrients) that the body quickly absorbs to use as energy and building blocks for the cells.

The digestive tract has the oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestines. The liver, pancreas and gallbladder are an organism in the stomach that aid in digesting by releasing digestive juices and acids. Unfortunately, digestive diseases occur in the digestive or gastrointestinal tract. The condition can be mild or severe.

Some of the common digestive diseases are:

IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS)
IBS is a group of combined symptoms of the gastrointestinal disorder. Doctors consider diagnosing it after patient experiences symptoms such as constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. Some people also have recurring diarrhoea.

Many people suffer from IBS. For example, approximately 10-15% of the population in the U.S suffers from this digestion disorder. Women are at more risk of IBS than men while the men who are under 45 are at the least risk. Diagnostic test for irritable bowel syndrome is not standard but depends on the present symptoms. Treatment for IBS mostly includes a combination of medication, use of probiotics, diet change and therapy for management of stress if the disease is making the patient have anxiety.

GALLSTONES
IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS)
Gallstones whose other name is Cholelithiasis are fluid deposits that turn into stones after hardening within the gallbladder. The size of deposits can be tiny like a few sand grains or large like a gold ball. It is frequent for individuals to have more than one gallstone at one time. Severe pain starting at the upper right-hand side of the abdomen and back /shoulder area in some cases are the symptoms of gallstones. The treatment for gallstones is to remove them from the bladder through surgery.

HEMORRHOIDS
IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS)
Hemorrhoids occur when the hemorrhoidal veins in the rectum or anus enlarge and swell. They can occur in the internal or external part of the veins. The external haemorrhoids feel and appear like a protrusion outside the anal opening and are common among women during pregnancy and after delivery.

IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS)
Hemorrhoids are uncomfortable and irritating to tolerate, but luckily doctors have several options to treat them. The treatment includes taking more fiber, using ointments, using haemorrhoid banding a nonsurgical procedure or surgical options.

ACID REFLUX
Acid reflux also GERD occurs when the liquid contents in the stomach refluxes (backs or regurgitates) up and gets into the oesophagus. When the contents include acid and bile, they will cause inflammation and damage the lining of the esophagus. If there is no treatment, this damage will escalate into ulcers and scarring. It is essential to get treatment for acid reflux early. Treatment is by medication in combination with disease management. The methods of managing acid reflux are by changing the diet to include less acidic foods, elevating the head when sleeping and weight loss.

CELIAC DISEASE
Celiac disease cause sensitivity to gluten a protein in foods processed from grain or wheat. These include many types of foods found in grocery stores. Symptoms of celiac disease include abdominal pain, nausea, bloating and diarrhoea. A simple change of diet is a treatment option for cases of celiac disease, and it can improve the quality of life for gluten sensitive patients. Cutting back or avoiding gluten is an excellent step of reducing the severity of celiac symptoms even when medication is necessary.

It is essential to arrange a quick visit to a doctor if you witness one of these signs and symptoms as it is very likely that the digestive tract has infections.

Blood in stool
Severe abdominal pain
Change in bowel habits
Heartburn that antacids do not relieve
Unintentional weight loss
Bloating and constipation
Diarrhea
Incontinence
Swallowing problems
Tests for digestive problems include endoscopic ultrasound, capsule endoscopy, colonoscopy and upper GI endoscopy.

HOW TO DEAL WITH HOMESICKNESS

HOW TO DEAL WITH HOMESICKNESS

How to Deal With Homesickness
Individuals who chose nursing or medical profession will move from home to study or work. At some, many of them will get homesick.

Feeling homesick is not a weakness or something to warrant self-condemnation. It is something affecting many students and workers when they move from home or a familiar place for long. The best way of overcoming homesickness is by inventing coping mechanisms.

REMEDIES TO OVERCOME AND PREVENT HOMESICKNESS
CARRY YOUR FAVORITE ITEMS
Pack the items that make you happy when leaving for a new destination. Such things could be teddy bears, your most favorite birthday gift, a souvenir, a movie or anything that cheers you up when you are a low mood. These items will make you feel like you are still at home. Do not fear that the people at the new place will know that you miss home. The chances are that they also carried their items with them just that you do not see.

MAKE NEW FRIENDS AND SOCIALIZE
After relocating to a new place, there is a temptation to stay indoors in what you perceive to be a little haven. Extending your stay indoors will make you feel even worse. Isolation will make you lonelier, and most of the time you will start to ponder on the things you miss about home.

Participate in social activities, study at the library instead of your room, try a part-time job or go for some extracurricular activities. You will find many people in these places, and the process makes new friends who you can interact with and feel less lonely. Participating in more social is the best way to overcome homesickness.

STAY BUSY
It is essential that you stay busy to dislodge the thoughts that you are away from home. Avoid spending hours sitting at home looking at photos of the moment back home on your laptop or phone. It is advisable to communicate regularly with friends and relative, but you should not always wish you were with them. It will just make you sadder.

Keep I mind that the home you are missing could not provide everything you need in life and concentrate on the thing that made you relocate. Also, consider that the close acquaintances you left at home could also be having much more responsibility than you and do not have an opportunity to see new places.

There is always something you could do instead of burying in grief about missing home. Run errands, complete all the tasks, explore new things entertain yourself by listening to music, exercising or watching movies.

ASK FOR HELP WHEN NECESSARY
Moving to a new workstation, from high school to nursing or medical school is tough, but you should find quick solutions for new challenges. Do not fear to ask for help if you have problems with the course, job schedules or personal issues. Many people are willing to help. For example, universities have counselors who understand what new students go through and the way to help them overcome the challenge. If you are at a new workstation, do not be ashamed to ask for small favors such as where to shop for specific items at cheaper cost rather than worry about finances and wish you were at home where you know the most affordable stores.

EXPLORE THE NEW SURROUNDINGS
The unfamiliarity with the surroundings is the primary reason why many people become homesick. It is a marvelous idea to set some time aside for exploring the new workplace, school and the city. You can go for sightseeing to check the exciting activities you would like to explore. You can also try some volunteering in the local communities.

Homesickness should not make your life difficult because you may stay at the new place for just a short time. Explore all you can and be positive about the new location. It will be more pleasurable to wait around when you have a positive attitude.

WHAT CAUSES TOOTH DECAY

WHAT CAUSES TOOTH DECAY

What Causes Tooth Decay
If tooth decay is untreated, it might cause infection, extreme pain and even loss of a tooth. It is essential to arrange for regular dental checkups because tooth decay process starts by causing unnoticeable damage to the tooth’s enamel and gradually progresses to the deeper layers and the pulp containing highly sensitive nerves and blood vessels.

CAUSES OF TOOTH DECAY
You can prevent tooth decay if you know the causes. The factors cause tooth decay.

POOR ORAL HYGIENE
The mouth and teeth should be clean to stay in a healthy state. Poor oral health occurs when you do not:

Brush the teeth regularly
Floss regularly
Brush the tongue
Use mouthwashs.

It is ideal to brush the teeth after every meal, but since it is not always practical, you should make an effort of brushing twice, in the morning and night. Brushing the teeth should take two full minutes to allow cleaning all the dirt from every part of the mouth. Proper oral hygiene helps in preventing tooth decay.

DEEP TOOTH CREVICES AND ENAMEL PROBLEMS
Enamel issues and deep fissures in the teeth are more likely to cause tooth decay. The reason is that deep crevices allow bacteria and plaque easy aces to grow. Dentists use dental sealants to seal deep holes and prevent tooth decay. A dental sealant is safe for uninfected teeth.

TOOTH GRINDING
Tooth grinding is a habit by many people who do not even realize that they do it. It occurs when a person is under intense stress or asleep. Tooth grinding causes decay because it strips away the outer layer of the tooth enamel. A bite guard also called night guard helps to prevent tooth grinding when asleep. Solving the cause of immense stress also helps to avoid grinding.

LACK OF ENOUGH FLUID
Fluoride helps in preventing tooth decay by increasing resistance of the teeth to acids that plaque produces. Plaque on the teeth is a sticky deposit in which the bacteria reproduce. Many public supplies add fluoride to water.

SUGARY FOODS
Sugary foods contribute to growth and survival of bacteria in the mouth. Bacteria in the mouth feed on the sugary foods and start coating the teeth with damaging acids. It happens in few seconds and could occur several times in the course of one meal. Dentists recommend brushing the teeth after every meal to remove the acid. Sugary foods are not just those with many sugars such as candy. There are many types of food containing hidden sugars. These are the foods you should be careful about by establishing if the foods you consume have hidden sugars. Drinks with much sugar such as juice can cause much damage to the teeth as soda.

ACIDIC FOODS AND DRINKS
Acidic foods or drinks cause tooth decay by damaging the tooth enamel. Soda is acidic and causes damage to the enamel. Some common foods also that people eat daily also contain teeth damaging acid. Bread and fish are some of the surprising sources of acid. Carbonated beverages like soda and fruit juice are stronger acidic agents that cause tooth decay.

DRY MOUTH
Saliva helps to inhibit the growth of plaque. This will not occur if dry mouth conditions exist. Prescription medications, genetic or medical conditions like diabetes can be a cause of dry mouth. A vigilant dentist should notice a dry mouth, determine the cause and treatment.

Children are at more risk of tooth decay because their teeth do not have strong minerals and acids wear them away quickly. Babies can also get tooth decay if they take sugary milk formula or juice. Sharing forks, spoons or other utensils also increase the risk of tooth decay.