How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay?

How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay?

Learning how to write a compare and contrast essay is a rite of passage for many college students, as this essay type is one of the most common assignments in college, especially in the first year. Writing a compare and contrast essay helps students develop and improve upon skills such as critical reasoning, scientific argumentation, and organized systematic writing. The best essays of this type have a clear purpose, such as shedding light on a complex idea or clearing up misconceptions about a difficult topic. Another purpose might be illustrating how one subject is better than another or perhaps highlighting a new approach to thinking about something. The individual assignment will vary, of course, and each should come with its rubric. Pay close attention to the rubric, since it will outline what your teacher is looking for, and make sure you understand the assignment before you begin. If you have a question about the essay assignment, do not be afraid to ask your teacher for help.

What Is a Compare and Contrast Essay?

The compare and contrast essay format is similar to that of other essay types. The writer must state a thesis in the introduction, argue the thesis in the body, and then form a conclusion. However, with a compare and contrast essay, the goal is to show how one subject is similar to another (i.e., compare them), as well as how it is different (i.e., contrast them). Such an essay requires upfront planning to ensure the writer has a firm grasp on both subjects. One way to plan for a compare and contrast essay is to create a Venn diagram to show how two subjects are similar and different, such as this one. Here’s an example:

You may find that you need to create several of these diagrams before you know what your thesis is and what your two subjects are. Be open to different possibilities. The first two subjects you diagram may not be the ones you want to compare and contrast in your essay, but creating that diagram may give you some useful ideas.

Compare and Contrast Essay Outline

According to our write an essay for me service professionals, it would also be a good idea to create an outline before you begin writing. The outline is like a template that you can follow to keep your essay on track throughout the writing process, and it should include the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion.

Here’s an example outline for a compare and contrast essay about the effects of energy drinks:

  • Introduction (hints at supporting arguments for thesis): widespread use of energy drinks
  • Thesis: Energy drinks are stimulating and easy to consume (and thus are both similar to a different from coffee/tea) but may be more akin to soft drugs in the long run
  • Body (supporting arguments for thesis)
  • Pros (how energy drinks are similar to and sometimes better than coffee or tea): enhancing, energy boosting, quick acting, portable
  • Cons (how energy drinks are more dangerous than they are worth): regular and excessive consumption can lead to health concerns, negative side effects soon after consumption, addictive, exhaustion of nervous system
  • Conclusion: Cons outweigh pros, as too many energy drinks can lead to druglike effects

Now that you’ve compared and contrasted your subjects using a diagram, drafted a thesis, gathered some supporting evidence, and created an essay outline, you’re ready to get started writing.

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How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay?

End your introduction with a thesis sentence. It will allow readers to grasp your opinion of the compared subject matters, and it will logically draw their attention to the main idea.

In the thesis, provide one idea or a statement that unites both subject matters. Even if you have discovered more differences than similarities between your subject matters, you should be able to find at least one element that they have in common and include it as part of your main idea.

In the body, present as much support for your thesis as you can. Support can come in the form of statistics, research results, interviews, or other sources. Some writers prefer to mention the evidential base in the thesis, but others prefer to wait until the body of the essay.

Draw a conclusion at the end of your essay based on the similarities and differences you have presented throughout the paper. The conclusion should not introduce any new ideas but should bring closure to the paper.

Also, guys from EssayPro have prepared a video guide on “How to write a Compare and Contrast Essay”:

Choose Your Compare and Contrast Essay Topic

The subjects of a compare/contrast essay can vary from some physical objects to historical figures and events. The core thing to remember when choosing compare and contrast topics is that the subjects you will compare must be different. But, at the same time have some common features. For example, you may compare Democrats and Republicans, Extroverts and Introverts, etc.

Brainstorm Similarities and Differences

If you are wondering how to start a compare and contrast essay, the answer is simple – with some brainstorming. Once you define the subjects, the next thing you need to do is to brainstorm what similarities and differences they have.

To get things right, look at your two subjects separately and analyze them. Then, make two lists, one for similar points and the other one for differences, where you will be writing down all points that come into your mind.

Pro tip: If you are wondering how to compare and contrast your subjects, making lists is definitely helpful. But, if you are more of a visual person, you may find it more convenient to map out your ideas using a Venn diagram, where you’ll have two overlapping circles, one for each of your subjects, with similarities written where the circles overlap and differences written on the other sides of circles.

Write Compare and Contrast Essay Introduction

To start a compare and contrast essay, you will need to write a solid introduction that transitions into a clear and specific thesis sentence. The introductory paragraph should outline the topic you want to cover and provide insight into your main idea. It should mention what matters—the people, ideas, events, or other subjects you are going to compare and contrast in the body of your essay.

In the introduction, include the necessary background information. Your introduction should be brief, but exhaustive. Before stating your thesis, you should provide a preview of your supporting arguments and positions, as your reader needs to understand why your subject matter is worth comparing and contrasting.

Pay attention to the structure of your essay, and make sure it is balanced. For instance, if the whole essay will be three pages long, you should not spend two of them on the introduction.

Develop a Thesis Statement for Your Compare and Contrast Essay

The thesis statement is one of the key elements of contrast and compare paper. Its purpose is to introduce the topic and formulate a focused argument.

To create a powerful compare and contrast thesis, replace a vague, general topic (for instance, the comparison of democracy and republic ideologies) with something more specific and detailed. For example, it may sound like, “The ideas of Republicans and Democrats vary significantly in terms of plans and policies on gun control, death penalty, and other major issues, but they do agree on certain points.”

Note how this sample compare and contrast thesis statement gives you the scope for showing both similarities and differences inherent in the ideas of these two parties. But, at the same time, the statement is not 100% concrete in terms of similar and contrasting points, so it also leaves you some space to alter your comparison.

To make your statement stronger, it is also important to answer several questions such as: “So what?” and “Why do you choose to compare these particular parties?

To answer these questions, be sure to add some background info concerning your topic. For example, stress that Democrats and Republicans are the two largest opposing parties.

Decide on Compare and Contrast Essay Structure

Unlike other types of essays, a comparison/contrast essay doesn’t imply using the same structure. In fact, there are a couple of ways to organize your work:

  1. Whole-to-Whole – This method implies that the author of a comparison and contrast essay will focus on unfolding each subject separately and then analyze the differences and similarities. For example, if you are comparing two different state structures using this format, you can tell about the key points of one structure in the first paragraph and then define the second state structure in the second paragraph.
  2. Point-by-Point – Another comparing and contrasting essay format implies that you will be comparing your subjects by certain points, focusing each paragraph on a single point of comparison.

Choose any of these methods. The two things that remain unchanged are the introduction with a thesis statement and a conclusion, which have to be included regardless of the chosen structure.

Write Your Compare and Contrast Essay Body Paragraphs

Start a compare and contrast paragraph with a clear but concise topic sentence that defines one point of comparison (e.g., shape, look, etc.) against which you will compare your subjects. Then say a couple of words about each of your subjects concerning the chosen point. And, finally, highlight similarities or differences using compare and contrast words.

Use the same tactic for the following body paragraphs. Remember to focus on a single point of comparison in every paragraph to retain the integrity and logical flow of your paper and, at the same time, unfold your subjects to the fullest extent.

Write Compare and Contrast Essay Conclusion

As you saw in the example above, the conclusion of an essay should help the reader understand the writer’s point of view. In other words, the best essays have a conclusion that reminds the reader of the thesis and shows, through a summary of the paper’s findings, how the thesis is correct. The example compare and contrast essay, about energy drinks, uses the thesis that energy drinks are overused and can be seen as either mind boosters or “soft drugs.” The conclusion sums up the findings from the body of the essay and then uses those findings to provide an opinion, a direct answer to the thesis question of whether energy drinks help boost the mind or inhibit it like a drug.

Proofread Your Compare and Contrast Essay

Once the final draft of your compare/contrast paper is ready, be sure to read it several times and eliminate any grammar, punctuation, and other mistakes.

To make proofreading simple, make use of these tips:

  • Let it rest for a few hours or, even better, a day or two;
  • Use grammar and spell-check tools;
  • Ask a friend to cast a fresh pair of eyes on your paper to make sure that there is nothing you may have missed.

Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

A good compare and contrast essay topic often includes words such as “versus” (vs.) or “or,” and these words may be useful in the essay’s title as well. Below is a list of potential compare and contrast essay topics for college papers. Ten of these sample topics have “vs.” in the title, and ten have “or,” clearly indicating that the resulting essays will either compare and contrast two completely different subjects or clarify two positions on the same subject.

Here is the list of possible topics for compare and contrast essay:

  • Energy Drinks: Mind Boosters or Soft Drugs
  • International Monetary Fund: Economic Investments or a Debt Pit
  • Abortion: Life Saver or Death Sentence
  • Online Courses: Waste of Time or a Key to Better Future
  • Cell Phones: Vital Gadget or a Deadly Threat
  • Homeopathy: Self-Deceptiveness or Real Treatment
  • GMO: Famine Problem Solution or Poison
  • Online Communication: True Friendship or Illusion of Emotional Bond
  • Religion: Vestige of the Past or Salvation of Nations
  • Plural Marriage: Way Out of Underpopulation or Flashback to Barbarian Times
  • Edward Snowden vs. Julius Caesar
  • Putin vs. Obama
  • Orwell vs. Huxley
  • Dita Von Tease vs. Bettie Page
  • Bruce Lee vs. Chuck Norris
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger vs. Sylvester Stallone
  • Napoleon vs. Kutuzov
  • Steve Jobs vs. Bill Gates
  • Nikola Tesla vs. Thomas Eddison
  • Jesus vs. Thor

How to Write an Argumentative Essay Guide?

How to Write an Argumentative Essay Guide?

Writing an argumentative essay requires thorough preparation and planning. You need to prove that your claims are correct, applying strong evidence. Find out what elements you need to incorporate to create an outstanding paper. Let our write my essay service professionals show you how to write an argumentative essay step by step.

What Is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is a common academic assignment that requires a student to discuss a controversial view or idea. Argumentative writing is different from expository and analytical pieces because it requires its author to take a stance and prove that his or her point of view is correct.  It is not a piece of cake as a person needs to apply critical thinking skills, use persuasive techniques, and be able to refute opposing opinions to create a successful essay.

Types of Arguments

Traditionally, we distinguish three types of arguments: the Toulmin argument, the Rogerian argument, and the Aristotelian argument. They help to organize an essay and persuade a reader in the veracity of your words.

  • The Toulmin argument

This argument type is based on the statement of opinion, which is grounded on solid facts and data from reliable sources. The author should link their claims to the grounds and provide additional support. It allows introducing an opposing thought and providing a counter-argument, using a “rebuttal.”

  • The Rogerian argument

The Rogerian argument allows recognizing the existence of opposing opinions before you introduce your own claim. This type of argument has the aim of finding a compromise between the two sides. Thus, the author should work towards a balanced view discussing any controversial issue.

  • The Aristotelian argument

Using the Aristotelian argument, you should express your claim and convince the reader that it is true. First, introduce the problem and take a stance. Then, mention the opposing opinion and prove it is wrong, providing undeniable evidence. Ethos, pathos, and logos can serve you as persuasion tools.

The Elements of Argumentative Essays

  • Clear and concise language
  • Arguable argumentative essays topics
  • Thorough research of a controversial issue
  • Organized structure of an argumentative essay
  • Persuasive techniques
  • Logical argument
  • Effective transitions between paragraphs
  • Strong evidence and reason

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Argumentative Essay Format

Proper structure is the foundation of a successful paper. You need to understand the structure of an argumentative essay before formulating your arguments. So, how to organize a good argumentative essay? Our paper writing service writers recommend starting with a compelling introduction, adding 3-4 purposeful body paragraphs, and creating a reasonable conclusion. Take a close look at the argumentative essay format.

Argumentative Essay Topics

If you are wondering what the main key to success in writing a brilliant argumentative essay is, it’s worth saying that the overall success depends on a huge number of factors. From the sources you find and the way you structure your work to the choice of words and plagiarism score – every tiny detail matters when the professor starts rating your paper. But, it all starts with the choice of a topic.

Your topic is the key to success. And while this is a vital step on your way to a perfectly written essay, there is no need to sugarcoat it – choosing good argumentative topics can be rather hard.

Good argumentative essay topics should be debatable, relevant, relatable, and compelling. Also, argument topics should not be too broad or, on the contrary, too narrow but have to give you enough scope for research and developing your ideas in a short essay. And, most importantly, it has to be interesting to you because only this way can you handle the task well and without a hassle.

If you’ve been looking for worthy argument essay topics, below you will find a list of 50 great ideas to spark your creativity and inspiration!

Technology Argumentative Essay Topics

  1. Is social media addiction real?
  2. Does technology make us smarter or dumber?
  3. The danger of cell phones
  4. Should the online content be more censored?
  5. Kids should not use technology
  6. Will virtual money replace real?
  7. Pros and cons of technology in household
  8. Do social networks make us feel lonely?
  9. Can people continue developing without technology?
  10. Are paper books better than e-books?

Religious Argumentative Essay Topics

  1. Do all religions worship the same God?
  2. The role of the church in the modern society
  3. Should religion be taught at schools?
  4. Religion vs. Science
  5. Why do people lose faith?
  6. The change of religion as a sin
  7. Is God a well-thought-out myth or reality?
  8. The purpose of religion
  9. Can one have faith but ignore the church?
  10. The issue of atheism

Political Argumentative Essay Topics

  1. Are wars politically advantageous?
  2. Presidential vs. Parliamentary state structure
  3. Are revolutions a good thing?
  4. The problem of corruption
  5. What are the advantages and drawbacks of democracy?
  6. Stricter gun control is a necessity
  7. Is American foreign policy effective?
  8. The political party I support (why?)
  9. Should there be a wall on the US border?
  10. The importance of having nuclear weapons for countries

Education Argumentative Essay Topics

  1. Should schools stop giving homework?
  2. The pros and cons of uniforms
  3. Is cheating a problem today?
  4. The points for the elimination of standardized testing
  5. Is the standard grading system already outdated?
  6. Students should grade teachers too
  7. Are textbooks a thing of the past?
  8. Pros and cons of tech classrooms
  9. Is higher education still a thing today?
  10. Single-sex vs. mixed classrooms

History Argumentative Essay Topics

  1. Should everyone know history?
  2. Pros and cons of colonialism
  3. How did WWII create new professions?
  4. Reasons for the Mexican-American war
  5. How did minority civil rights change through US history?
  6. The role of wars in global progress
  7. What led to the expansion of women’s rights?
  8. Major triggers for global conflicts
  9. Why did slavery exist?
  10. The results of the American Civil War

Argumentative Essay Outline

You should carefully organize and structure your essay. It will help the reader to understand your point. Your argument and reasoning must be evident and clear.

Argumentative Essay Introduction

If you feel intimidated by a blank page and do not know how to start an argumentative essay introduction, pause and think about your argument. You should clearly understand what you are going to write about. Determine why you are interested in the topic and why it is relevant for society in general.

The introductory paragraph does not have to be long. You need only 3-5 sentences to introduce the topic. Start with a hook, which will catch the reader’s attention. You may use a quotation, provide statistics, or address the audience directly by asking a question.

For example:

  • Nelson Mandela once said that “the greatest glory in living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.”
  • As the Inter-Parliamentary Union reports, only 17% of government ministers are female.
  • Are people morally obliged to save the planet?

Then, provide general information about the topic and outline the context within which you will discuss it. Finally, create a thoughtful thesis statement as the last sentence of the introductory paragraph.

Argumentative Essay Thesis

A thesis statement is one of the most important elements of an argumentative essay. It should be formulated in a way that makes it arguable, allowing the reader to support it or disagree. A thesis statement reflects the main claim of the paper. It should be precise and give the reader a hint about the author’s position and findings. For an argumentative essay, you can either state your main point or mention the opposing view and refute it right away.  Remember that each body paragraph should support the thesis statement and provide claims with adequate reasoning.

How to Write an Article Review: Tips, Outline, Format

How to Write an Article Review: Tips, Outline, Format

Have you been given an article review paper to write and unsure of the format or where to start? There is no need to worry as Essay Service have to put together a top guide to get your assignment completed as fast as possible and with the best grades!

What is an Article Review?

In simple terms, an article review essay is like a summary and evaluation of another professional or experts work. This style of essay writing can be used for many reasons, for example, a teacher or lecturer may wish to introduce their students to a new subject by reviewing a professional’s piece. Also an already acclaimed expert in a field could possibly write a review of an other professionals work.

Also, a newspaper article review example could be a journalist writing a critique about another competitor’s published work.

In comparison, a book review article example could be critiqued by fellow author or even a student in the chosen field.

Depending on the critique criteria and the work being reviewed, there could also be certain points asked for in addition which should be checked and noted from the lecturer or supervisor. Otherwise, follow the article review guidelines from our write my essay service to get the assignment done in no time.

Key points when writing an article review:

Use the article review template from our paper writing service to get through the assignment as fast as possible so you will not waste any time.

How to Start an Article Review?

  1. Firstly read the work being reviewed as much as possible and look up key phrases and words that are not understood.
  2. Discuss the work with other professionals or colleagues to collect more opinions and get a more balanced impression.
  3. Highlight important sections or sentences and refer this to your knowledge in the topic, do you agree or disagree and what does this contribute to the field?
  4. Then re-write the key arguments and findings into your own words this will help gain better understanding into the paper. This can be just written as an outline also and will help decide which points are wanted to discuss later.

If you feel you do not have enough time to create a critique worthy of your time, then come to Essay Service and order a custom Article review online.

You can order essay independent of type, for example:

The best way to write an effective essay would be to draw up a plan or outline of what needs to be covered and use it for guidance throughout the critique.

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Article Review Outline

Planning out an outline for your paper will help writing and to put it together so therefore saving you time in the long run.

Some questions to help with the outline of a critique:

  • What does the article set out to do or prove?
  • Are the main ideas clear and defined?
  • How substantial is the evidence?
  • Where does the article fit in its specific field?
  • Does it provide new knowledge on the topic?
  • What are the central theories and assumptions?
  • Is the writer conclusive at getting their point across?

Here is a typical article review format to follow:

Use our article review template to get through the assignment as fast as possible so you will not waste any time.

Article Review Title

Firstly start with creating a title for your critique, this should be something to do with the focus of the work that is being reviewed. An approach could be to make it descriptive or also in a more creative way think of something that intrigues the reader. After the title, this is a good place to correctly cite the paper being critiqued and include the important details for example, the author, title of publication, any page references. The style in which the citation is written will depend on which is best for this type of work being reviewed.

Article Review Introduction

The introduction should be a brief glimpse into what the author was writing about and any other details the audience will find interesting. Maybe some background details on the piece that is not already known or something that contributes to the review itself. It is a good idea to start by introducing the work at the start of the paragraph and then include a ”hook.” Include the writer’s thesis if there is one and put it at the end but include your own thesis towards the critique near the beginning of this section.

Article Review Body

When constructing the summary section write the down the important points and findings in the piece in your own words. Include how the claims are supported and backed up with evidence but use direct quotes as sparing as possible. Do not put in any information that is known to professionals in the field or topic but detail any conclusions the work came to. Make sure the paper is not just copied word for word and is actually summarized by yourself, this will also help the review stage.

To make an accurate critique breakdown the work and express opinions on whether it achieves its goals and how useful it is in explaining the topic. Decide if the paper contributes to its field and if it is of importance and credible to the given field. Backup all the claims with evidence either from the summary or another source. If using another text remember to correctly cite it in the bibliography section. Look at how strong the points and do they contribute to the argument? Try to identify any biases the writer might have and use this to make a fair critique. Also say if you agree or disagree with the points made and back this up with documented evidence of why or why not. This part is only for opinions of the significance in the piece and not including whether you liked it or not. Furthermore the different types of audiences that would benefit from the paper can be mentioned in this section.

Article Review Conclusion

In the conclusion section in the critique, there should only be one or two paragraphs in which a summary of key points and opinions in the piece are included. Also summarize the significance of the paper to its field and how accurate the work is. Depending on the type of critique or work evaluated it is also possible to include comments on future research or the topic to be discussed further.

If other sources have been used then construct a bibliography section and correctly cite all works utilized in the critique. Depending on which style to use can depend on the work being critiqued or the type of review asked for.
In an article review APA format is very common and stands for American Psychology Association. This will include a “references list” at the end of the critique and in-text citations used but also mentioning the author’s last name, page number and date of publication.

There are also MLA and Chicago format for citations with slight differences in name like using a “works cited” page for MLA. More can be found out in this guide on the subtle differences between the types of citation methods under the heading “Creating a bibliography.”

Article Review Writing Tips

  • Allow enough time to complete the research and writing of the critique.
    The number one problem with creating a critique is running out of time to make it the best it can be. This can be avoided by effective planning and keeping on time with the deadlines you set out.
  • Collect twice more research than you think is needed to write a review.
    This will help when coming to the writing stage as not all the information collected will be used in the final draft.
  • Write in a style that is compatible with the work being critiqued.
    This will be better for whoever requested the critique and also will make paper easier to construct.
  • A summary and evaluation must be written.
    Do not leave out either part as one complements the other and is vital to create a critique worth reading.
  • Be clear and explain well every statement made about the piece.
    Everything that is unknown to professionals in the field should be explained and all comments should be easy to follow for the reader.
  • Do not just describe the work, analyze and interpret it.
    The critique should be in depth and give the audience some detailed interpretations of the work in a professional way.
  • Give an assessment of the quality in the writing and of what standard it is.
    Evaluate every aspect in the paper so that the audience can see where it fits into the rest of the related works. Give opinions based on fact and do not leave any comments without reason as this will not count for anything.

In The Heights

In The Heights

If you are an Art student or an aspiring learner, such an assignment as an analysis or review of some artwork will definitely come up somewhere along the way. Of course, there are some ways out of these situations. You can always opt for essay writing help and have no worries.

Yet, some artworks are really worth your attention. Who knows, maybe you won’t even have to turn to essay writing services with some!

One such work is, for sure, a great musical named “In the Heights.” Below you will find the summary of this piece that was prepared by our best essay writing service professionals.

In the Heights: A Comprehensive Summary

In The Heights is a story about the New York’s heights neighborhood written by Lin-Manuel Miranda and Quiara Alegria Hudes in 2006. This work reveals the use of musical structures in its storyline.

The intense use of musical aspects assists characters in forming their identities and establishing purpose in their actions. Intensive musical production has helped explore specific themes. One such theme is hope.

The aspect of perseverance, especially in times of adversity and the importance of family ties, was brought up through music. Through music, the theme of family and the importance of communal relationships have been brought to light.

For example, Daniela was a small saloon owner. Her case, to some extent, reveals the shortage and limitations of job opportunities in the minor social group. But it is not a barrier to a positive life perception.

Even with the lack of better job opportunities and working resources, Daniela and other characters are, in one way or another, able to use music, dance and express their emotions and feelings. This is a way of creating a positive mood and morale for their neighborhood.

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Even with the lack of better job opportunities and working resources, Daniela and other characters are, in one way or another, able to use music, dance and express their emotions and feelings. This is a way of creating a positive mood and morale for their neighborhood.

Prominent Themes

According to our write an essay for me service professionals, the theme of hope is central to the musical. It is carried out as a red line throughout the play by the implementation of songs and other musical means. The theme is initially observed in the opening act, with an expression of an optimistic attitude first seen in Usnavi.

This was easily read in his words: “Cuz, my parents come from nothing. They got a little more. And sure we were poor, but yo, at least we have got the store. And it’s all about the legacy they left with me” (Miranda, Lin-Manuel, and Quiara Alegría Hudes 12).

In this statement, Usnavi acknowledged the state in which they were currently living. Still, there is an honor and pure gratitude as a way of appreciating the store regardless of the enormous challenges and struggles they faced.

Similarly, this is an authentic presentation of the hardships of immigrants’ lives. They have to start fresh without any previous generation’s help while trying to build their happiness in a new country.

The Songs Are Important

The songs performed throughout the play express an undoubted positivity. They negate the assumptions that immigrants suffer while building their way to success. Music is therefore presented from the perspective of appreciation theme.

Music highlights the struggles of a minority community. It also plays as the perfect instrument of preference demonstration. This instrument ultimately lights a candle of hope for the future that is yet to be.

The much-earned confidence of a bright future lies under their communal relations. It is closely tied to the importance of friendship and family ties. Good relations between members of the community are the primary areas of building confidence and trust.

In the Heights was created with the help of distinctive musical means. Multiple musical styles capture the flavor of Usnavi’s world and that of the heights. In this manner, the story has incorporated Rap and Hip-Hop musical styles. Those are expressed in songs such as “In the Heights” and “96,000.” They are used by Usnavi and other characters to narrate and move the plot.

Lin-Manuel also added an aspect of Latin rhythms of samba, salsa, and merengue. In almost every scene of the musical, Latin rhythms and musical styles reflect a wide variety of cultures. Some of the songs that utilize Latin musical styles include “The Club” and “Paciencia y Fe.” Soul and R&B can be heard in songs like “When You’re Home.”

Through this means, Miranda achieves a perfect combination of Motown soul music with other styles. Additionally, traditional music is added to enhance musical flavor. It is present in songs such as “Breathe” and “Inutil.”

The Role of Language

The language used throughout In the Heights is developed in an elegant way to achieve a primary musical’s purpose. The well-established interplay between English and Spanish is a critical part of the storytelling. Characters can masterfully merge different linguistics depending on the context.

It seems like writers take it as fun to write in other languages. The great working system of checks and balances was adopted here. They wanted a show where everyone in the neighborhood would feel as welcome as possible. Even the most eloquent custom writing service pros will definitely agree that the author’s integration of words and music in this work was completed perfectly.

The outcomes of the writer’s intentions underline that Lin Manuel Miranda is a genius in his style. The interconnection between the other languages and musical styles clearly shows the general connectivity of the neighborhood.

Though the residents of this community come from different parts of Latin America, they are bonded and engaged. After all, they are bilingual and can understand each other perfectly.

The language extensively bonds the neighborhoods because it brings a sense of commonness. The oneness brought by the Spanish language applies to everyone except Benny. He is the only person who doesn’t know the language, but he tries to prove himself as a neighborhood resident throughout the show.

The Spanish language’s great importance is later expressed by the song “Sunrise.” In it, Nina and Benny demonstrate their romantic relationship. She tries her best with the utmost interest to teach Benny Spanish after they spent a night together.

Benny demonstrated his willingness to study the language because he wanted to be a part of the community and be closer to Nina. Similarly, this shows how love, as a universal thing, helps to cross borders and motivate people to change their lives. This way, through its musical nature, language has been used as an aspect of bonding.

Different musical styles have been developed throughout the play. The songs express the need for change and the need to acquire a cultural identity. As a rule, not all the people love changes, but in this play, almost every person craves growth, stability, and wants something they can be proud of.

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Different musical styles have been developed throughout the play. The songs express the need for change and the need to acquire a cultural identity. As a rule, not all the people love changes, but in this play, almost every person craves growth, stability, and wants something they can be proud of.

The Ultimate “Et Al.” Guide

The Ultimate “Et Al.” Guide

There are some common Latin abbreviations you come across in writing like, e.g.i.e., and etc. Et al. is also a Latin abbreviation that is commonly found in academic documents, research papers, and bibliographies. If you have seen this abbreviation several times and have been wondering how it is used, this article is for you. Our essay writing service writers invites you to learn about the et al. meaning, the correct punctuation, how to use it with different citation styles, etc.

What Does Et Al. Mean?

Et al. is a Latin term that stands for ‘Et alia.’ Et alia means ‘in addition,’ or ‘and others.’ Directly translated, ‘et’ means ‘and’ and ‘alia’ means ‘others.’ Normally, et al. is used when you are stating a list of authors, and you do not want to mention all of them. This can either be because they are too many or the style being used has a set requirement on the number of authors you can mention. It should be noted that et al. should never be used in place of one author. It always stands for at least two more others. Here is an example:

Authors: John Watson, Sheldon Herbert, Kripke James, and Mary Catherine. (2009)

Citation example: Watson et al. (2009)

Using Et Al.: Correct Punctuation

Many rules direct the et al. usage, but first, you need to understand how to punctuate the term itself. When punctuating et al., ‘et’ isn’t followed by a period, but ‘al’ is always followed by a period. This is because ‘et’ isn’t an abbreviation but a complete Latin word while ‘al’ is the abbreviation of ‘alia.’

Here is a representation of the correct and wrong punctuation of et al.

Wrong: Et. al.; Et. al; Et al

Right: Et al.

Besides the punctuation of the term itself, there are some other punctuation rules for before and after the expression.

  1. When using et al. in a sentence, if it comes at the end of the sentence, you do not need an extra period. For example:

Each Greek god had its own powers, as shown by Watson et al.

  1. You can add a comma after the period that comes after the et al. if the sentence is continuing. For example:

(Watson et al., 2009)

  1. You can use a comma before et al. if you are using the Oxford comma. The Oxford comma is a pre-conjunction comma used when the list has more than two items. For example:

If you are using the Oxford comma, the citation is:

Watson, Herbert, et al.

If you are not using the Oxford comma, the citation becomes:

Watson, Herbert et al.

Et Al. vs. Etc.

Etc. is another Latin term that is an abbreviation of et cetera, which can be translated to mean and the rest. Just like et alia, it is used when the writer does not want to mention everything. However, there is one crucial difference between etc. and et al. Etc. is used when the extra items are things, concepts, or ideas, not people. Here is an example of the two for further clarification:

Ian bought mangoes, bananas, carrots, etc. from the market.

Men in that period ate fruits and roots, according to Jane et al.

Et Al. and Ambiguity

There are times when the documents being referenced have some similar authors. When writing citations for such documents, you may end up having ambiguous references. You may need to include authors up to the point where the references can be differentiated. Here is an example for further clarification:

You want to reference two books:

Pi by John Watson, Sheldon Herbert, Kripke James and Mary Catherine (2009)

Qi by John Watson, Sheldon Herbert, Maryann Jameson, George Anderson, and Joyce Smith (2009)

If you write the citation as Watson et al. 2009, the reader will not know which book you are referring to. In this case, you will write the citations as:

Watson, Herbert, James, and Catherine (2009)

Watson, Herbert, Jameson et al. (2009)

The reason the first citation does not have et al. is that after writing the third differentiating author, there is only one author left, and as was mentioned earlier, et al. has to stand for at least two authors.

Et Al. in APA Style

Different citation styles have different rules for writing the in-text citations and bibliography.

When writing in-text citations in APA format, here are the rules:

  1. If the text has one or two authors, you will mention them using their last names in the in-text citation as follows:

(Tribianni, 2016)

(Charles & Evans, 2015)

  1. If the text is authored by more than two authors, mention the last name of the first author plus et al. as follows:

(Watson et al., 2009)

  1. In previous versions of APA, if three to five people wrote the cited work, you listed their last names in the first citation then just the first author in the consequent citations. An example is as follows:

1st citation: (Watson, Herbert, Jameson, Anderson & Smith, 2009)

Subsequent citations: (Watson et al., 2009)

In APA format, the et al. usage in the reference list is not allowed. If the work has more than seven authors, you list the first six, add an ellipse, then list the final name as shown below:

John W., Mary K.., Susan J., Evans M., Kevin T., Peter W., … Hendricks O.

Et Al. in APA 7th Edition

Two things have changed in the 7th edition of APA format:

  1. You don’t list all the authors in the first citation unless the work has only two authors.
  2. You can list up to 20 authors in the reference list. If the number of authors exceeds 20, write the first 19, add an ellipse, then write the last author.

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Et Al. in MLA Style

In MLA format, you use et al. both in the in-text citations and the works cited list. You use it when the number of authors exceeds three. Here is an example of an MLA in-text citation and reference in the works cited:

In-text citation: (Watson, 15)

Works cited reference: Watson et al. Pi. 2009.

Et Al. in Chicago Style

Chicago style is a little different from the two styles above because writers can use footnotes, references, or in-text citations. In the Chicago Manual, you use et al. for works that have four or more authors. You use a footnote if your work does not have a bibliography at the end. Here is how the citations will look like in each case when they have more than three authors:

  1. If writing in-text citations, here is how they will look like:

(Watson et al., 2009, 21-22)

  1. When writing footnotes:

1st mention: Watson et al., Pi (2009), 20-21

Subsequent mentions: Watson et al., Pi, 30-33

  1. When writing the bibliography:

Watson, John. Et al., Pi. 2009

Et Al. in Harvard Style

When citing using the Harvard style, you use et al. when the work has more than three authors. Just like with the other styles, you use the last name of the first author, followed by et al.

An example of a Harvard citation would be:

(Singh et al. 2015)

Et Alibi – Another Et Al.

Et al. can also, in some cases, stand for et alibi. An alibi is normally used in criminal investigations. It typically refers to where a suspect was at the time of the crime and is used as evidence to eliminate them from the suspect list. When et al. is used to mean et alibi, it can be translated to mean ‘and elsewhere.’ Where etc. means things or ideas, and et alia refers to people, et alibi refers to locations.

For example, you and your friends went for a tour around Kenya and are listing places you visited. Instead of mentioning all the places you went to, you can mention some of them then add et al. Here is an example:

We went to Maasai Mara, Fort Jesus, Nairobi National Park, et al. to look at Kenyan wildlife and major landmarks.

Et alibi can also be used to refer to locations that aren’t physical. Look at this example:

The author uses Swahili words (page 21 et al.) throughout the book.

In this example, the writer is referring to places in the book.