• Most relevant evidence for answering burring clinical questions
  • Individual clinical expertise
  • Patient preferences

Functioning Of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Care

Evidence based practice replaces the procedure and policies based on the other sources of clinical evidence such as authority or tradition. It takes three essential things that all clinicians should always consider the best practice evidence and clinical expertise to suit patient preferences.

Evidence on its own does not make the decisions but helps in supporting the process of patient care and improvement of quality. The integration of these three essential components when making clinical decisions enhances the opportunity to gain optimal clinical outcome and health care quality. The EBP practice nitrates from patient encounters that generate questions about the effects of these essential factors in clinical practice:

  • Utility of the diagnostic tests
  • Prognosis of disease
  • Etiology of disorders

EBP thrives when a clinician keeps acquiring new skills by searching for efficient literature and applying formal rules for evidence when evaluating clinical research.

Implications of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Care

Improves outcomes

The most outstanding benefit of EBP is to increase that it improves outcomes. When a clinician uses evidence and expertise, it helps to ensure that therapies are consistent with values for each patient thus contributing to the better outcome. Evidence based medicine helps in achieving faster recovery after surgical procedures and safer ways of delivering babies. The evidence-based practice also contributes to reducing health care costs and medical complications across all clinical specialties.

Provides clinicians with up-to-date evidence based protocols

TThere is much publication of scientific knowledge making it difficult for clinicians to keep up with the most recent medical practices. Primary care practitioners who want to stay current on the latest development in clinical practice need to read at least 17 articles daily. It is impossible to study and practice numerous such additions to existing literature every day. Evidence-based practice provides clinicians with ways of staying current with the new best practices by using standard evidence based protocols.

Improves of value, transparency, and accountability

Patients, payers, and employers are all important people important individuals in the healthcare industry and all of them require some transparency and accountability for the kind of care they receive. They also expect to get value regarding high-quality, safe care at most affordable cost. Clinicians who take evidence-based health care can achieve these goals as it justifies decisions by credible information thus increasing accountability. It can stand up to any scrutiny or gauge uncertainties by openly displaying the strength of evidence that supports policy. It also helps to make policy decisions driven by best health care for every amount spent on healthcare.

Increases accuracy of decisions

EBP uses near real-time data thus making decisions as precise as possible. Clinicians now have more access to information and knowledge due to technology development such as decision support systems, electronic medical records, decision support systems and data warehouses.The improved access to healthcare data held medical staff to use evidence-based medicine and in turn provide better care to the patients based on current almost real-time data.

Evidence-based practice in clinical care is not static. It continually incorporates new research findings for them to upgrade their skills. Clinicians who combine research skills with experience have more success in navigating clinical situations. Online programs provide clinicians with an opportunity to improve much-needed skills. EBP benefits have seen its use spread beyond medicine and nursing to other disciplines thus it is necessary for clinicians to gather much information on it as they can.Evidence-based practice has even spread beyond medicine and nursing to psychology, education and other disciplines.



Patients can be non-English speakers. Spanish is one of the most languages with many speakers across the United States and many other English speaking countries. It is vital to learn some common words and phrases that enable you to communicate, understand their needs and offer them the best care possible.

10 Essential Spanish Phrases for Nurses

Como se llama?

Spanish is the number two most popular language in the world and Spain national language. Everyone at some point requires care, by a nurse. When you work as a nurse, it is a given that you will encounter patients from different backgrounds and they expect the same treatment as other. In some cases, nurses come into contact with patients who speak a different language.

Me llamo

Means my name is. When a patient gives a name, it is polite also to say your name.You can add “”y soy suenfermera” to say I will be you nurse.

Tiene dolor?

It means are you in pain? Asking patients whether they are in pain is an essential question for a nurse to ask. Their answer helps a nurse to know how to assess and diagnose the patient. It also helps nurses to determine if the condition of the patient is critical and the most effective treatments to administer.

Donde le duele?

Meaning of “donde la duele” is where it hurts. It is natural that after a patient says he or she is in pain, the next move by a nurse is to ask about the location for you to do an examination.


The essence of care is to ensure that a patient is comfortable. To find out if a patient wants to eat is an essential component of care. For a Spanish to understand the question are you hungry, say tienehambre. If you want to ask are you thirsty, say “tienesed|?”

Regreso en unmomento.

Use this phrase when leaving the patient for a moment. It means I will be right back. Some patients are anxious, and when you leave, they feel as if they are left on their own. It is nice that you inform your patients know that you will return to them in a short moment.


Means do you have any questions.After attending s to patients, it is necessary to establish if they have understood what you have been saying. Medical terminology can be complicated, and it is good to encourage them to seek clarifications about test result, medication or care instructions.

Use el botón para ayuda.

This phrase is mostly applicable to patients in a hospital ward. It means push the call button for help. It lets your patient to know that the call button is the way of getting your attention if they require some assistance.

Llame antes de levantarse

Certain medical conditions or procedures make it difficult for patients to rise from a bed or chair.Use this phrase to remind patients of such conditions to “ask for help before you get up. “

Puedeir a casa hoy.

A doctor will discharge a patient who gets better from the hospital. Tell a patient “you can go home today” by saying “Puedeir a casa hoy” for them to know the good news and start making travel arrangements.

The phrase above will help you communicate better with a Spanish speaker. It is advisable to learn the right pronunciation.



Types of APRNs

APRN education trains nurses to examine, diagnose and manage medical problems, order tests and even prescribe medicine.They also engage in continuing education to keep abreast with methodological, technological and other developments in the nursing field. APRN role is not limited to providing health care. They are also educators, consultants, counselors, mentors, and researchers.

Role of APRN in teaching the trends and issues to nurses

APRN are well-prepared to offer advanced patient care, and they have a great deal of knowledge and skills to share with RNs and other health practitioners.Since they undertake trends and issues continuing education, they know about the current developments in nursing trends. They can translate their advanced knowledge and experience to teach evidence-based nursing skills and advanced theory to students and practicing nurses in a clinical setting.APRNs play an active role in preparing the workforce for new needs to fit reformed health care roles at health care facility or national level.

Advanced education helps APRN in teaching the trends and issues to nurses

To become a nurse practitioner requires additional training for 2-4 years in addition to the time that someone takes to qualify as an RN. The extensive training makes APRNs have a better understanding of some issues that RNs cannot handle without supervisor of the physicians or a senior nurse. When nurses work under an APRN, they get an opportunity to learn more about administering primary care from a professional who has duties almost equal to those of doctors.

Focus by APRN in Teaching the Trends and Issues

There are numerous emerging trends and issues in nursing. When APRNs teach, their areas of focus include the following emerging trends and problems in health care:

Health education and disease prevention

APRNs have much potential to in participating as well as teach on preventive care that for many years was an area of practice for physicians. Most of the APRNs have skills in providing primary care managing a significant percentage of the care that doctors can provide.

Whereas doctors training has more emphasis on diagnosis and treatment, APRNs have training in the health promotion and disease prevention across the lifespan. Their knowledge places them in a unique position to influence the nurses to think more about empowering patients into making lifestyle changes and better health choices that help to prevent diseases.

The role of APRN extends beyond the nursing professions into the community. Some of the APRN play valuable roles in health promotion which is one of the trends and issues in patient care in their communities.

Evidence based practice (EBP)

EBP is still a developing issue in clinical practice. APRNs receive training about the application of evidence-based practice at points of care. They can identify necessary EBP competencies for particular specialties. As advocates of evidence based practice and therapy, an APRN is in a good position to advance this science of nursing by conducting research, translating outcome to the nurses and guide them on the way to apply it in a practical environment.

Technology in nursing practice

Increase access to technology is one often most significant trends in nursing. New ways of tech assisted the practice in keeping on emerging every day. APRNs have a role in teaching other nurses to work comfortably with the new technologies and use it to offer the best care options for the parents. They also provide education about emerging technology that will dictate the future of nursing. One such issue is the Internet of Things that allows nurse practitioners to send patients to discharge their patients from the hospital and use intelligent medication systems to monitor the status of their health from a distance.

The role of APRN in teaching the trends and issues is more important than before as nowadays there is a need for more accountability about the quality and cost of care. Patients can now use the internet to compare the clinical outcome, directions by nurses and safety scores.



PRN is an abbreviation that is derived from the Latin word, which means ‘as the need arises.’ A PRN works on-call; when there is an emergency to have one or more RN nurses. The role of the PRN nurses is to provide the additional workforce to the current nursing to a health facility when there is an increase in patients’ intake. Every facility that handles the health of humans must have emergency needs for staff. This is where the PRN staffs come in.

However, the term is also relevant in the administration of medicine to patients. Most medications come with usage instructions such as “take one tablespoon by mouth every 8 hours.” In fact, a good doctor, while giving medicine to a patient, should not forget to include the instructions for use because the patient may use the drugs as he or she wishes if not directed. However, some medications are only used for treating a particular situation such as common cold, intermittent chest pain, allergies or constipation. Some of these medicines are on sale at local pharmacies or are prescribed by physicians.Nevertheless, some of the medications are taken ‘as needed.’ These go by the name PRN medicine. Nurses should be able to differentiate between “as needed” and daily medications. A competent nurse should be able to distinguish PRN from other medicine when reading prescription list. For example, a patient may feel that their diabetes or blood pressure does not affect them every day but the medications for the conditions are effective when taken daily. Other patients may only have high blood pressure because as an after effect of another issue such as receiving shocking news. The latter will take PRN medicine.


When a pharmacist prescribes “take as needed” medicine, it is essential that the prescription includes clear instructions on when and how to take it. The following information should be part of the instructions:


For instance, many people take nitroglycerin tablets for chest pain only when they have the symptoms. It is essential that a pharmacist provides instructions that someone who takes three doses in 15 minutes without relieving the symptoms should seek medical treatment.


Instructions by a pharmacist are necessary for guiding patients on when to take a PRN medication. For example, a patient with a heart problem and under instruction to check weight daily should only take “as needed” pills if the scales show a weight gain of more than 3 pounds in 24 hours.


Physicians may prescribe PRN medication to treat a current health issue. For example, a patient recovering from recent surgery for chronic knee pain might require some “as needed” medicine in addition to the usual prescription of painkillers. It is essential to provide the order of taking both medications and the right time to separate the doses.


It is a good idea for nurses and patients to discuss with pharmacists on any medication questions. The reason is that many PRN medicines have similar ingredients. If you take several types of these drugs at once, it may cause a dangerous overdose of a particular ingredient. For instance many prescription and non-prescription drugs contain acetaminophen hence it is unsafe to take them together without the direction of a pharmacist.


If you are unable to find a permanent nursing job at a hospital, you can apply for a PRN job. These Latin initials will stand for “as the situation demands” to mean you will work only when the hospital needs you. It is the same as working “pool” or per diem. Most hospitals keep a group of back up nurses and other supplementary personnel who step in for regular staffers who are sick or on vacation. They also go to duty when hospitals receive a higher than the usual number of patients like during natural disasters, disease outbreaks or terrorist attacks the facility cannot turn them away or treat them without additional help PRN job requires a commitment to work hours per month. It is usually not hard to get the number of hours you require, but it requires flexibility as the hospital might require you any moment even at odd hours. It is essential for medical practitioners to look out for PRN on medicine packaging and determine the dosage to give the right direction to their patients.



What exactly medical checkup and what is involved in it?

A general health check-up with your doctor allows your doctor take some routine medical tests on you in order to detect early any issues that may be affecting your health or has the potential of giving you medical issues soon or in the nearest future. Early detection of these issues could mean a lot in treating or preventing it. a typical checkup may include asking questions about your family history, a blood pressure check, an eye check, ear check, dental checkup, cholesterol check, blood sugar level check, breast and prostate cancer screening, a chest x-ray (if you are a heavy smoker), e.t.c.


#1: Prevention is better than Cure

Just as the old saying that “Prevention is better than cure”, a regular check is a cheap way of preventing serious health issues around the corner. It helps doctors diagnose potentially serious health issue early enough when it could still be easily treated or prevented before such issue becomes a serious medical problem. During this time as well, your doctor will be able to give you useful medical advice and tells you some potential signs and symptoms to watch out for.

#2: It Could Mean Lesser Healthcare Costs

Today, the overwhelming huge bill of doctors is sufficient to keep us away from having our health regularly checked. However, regular medical checkup could help you save a whole lot of money in the long run. This is because it helps you reduce the risk of surgery or any other serious medical care in the future as well reduces the risk of potential health ailments that could be life-threatening.

#3: Lifestyle and Family History

Indeed, you may be trying everything you could to make sure you live healthily, but at the same time, you may not be able to totally rule out the role your genes and your environment play in ensuring that. Environmental factors such as pollution and exposure to certain diseases may look like obvious factors, but regardless of your lifestyle, your family history is also another thing to consider in the bid to make sure you stay healthy. These, amongst many other things, are what your doctor looks out for during checkups.

#4: Stress-Related Problems

It’s been discovered that many of the medical issues we encounter today are directly related to our stress levels as increased stress levels have the potential to cause series of severe mental and physical problems like obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, mental disorders, e.t.c. All these can be diagnosed early in a medical checkup before they result in a serious and severe health problem. A checkup also helps you get appropriate medical advice needed to rightly manage and combat stress-related illnesses.

#5: Get It for Your Loved Ones and Yourself

Take charge of your health today and let your body thank you latter for that. Your health is surely everything to you as it has the potential to ruin not only your day-to-day life but could also go as far as affecting your happiness and that of your loved ones. So, it is a wise decision to consider yourself and your loved ones by getting a regular check on your health