Rays from the hot sun can uncomfortable but the exposure that warm rays frequently has many health benefits that you may think. Indeed, the sun has healing properties and in ancient times was used to hasten to heal wounds by killing germs before the discovery of antibiotics.

Natural sunlight has many benefits including:

Serotonin is a brain chemical that helps to boost good mood to help in feeling calm and stay focused. Serotonin release is essential because it causes the effect melatonin a hormone the brain releases when it becomes dark to trigger sleepiness. Low or failure to get exposure to sunlight causes dipping of serotonin levels. Low levels of serotonin increase the risk of getting seasonal affective disorder(SAD) a form of depression that occurs due to change in seasons.

Light therapy also photo therapy is one of the treatments for SAD. A doctor recommends the use of customized light box that stimulates the brain to make serotonin hormone to reduce production of excess melatonin. Exposure to sunlight provides natural sunlight to aid in the production of serotonin. Exposure to sunlight helps in treating panic attacks, anxiety-related disorders which have links with reduced sunlight and changing seasons. Other medical conditions that the sun helps in treating non-seasonal depression and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Exposure to sunlight helps in the production of vitamin D that plays an essential role in bone health. Low levels of vitamin D has a link to bones wasting diseases like osteomalacia, osteoporosis and rickets in children.In the western countries, there are more fractures in the winter when there is no sunlight with close 50% of the elderly with broken hips showing deficiency is vitamin D.

The sun helps in building healthy bones by providing ultraviolet -B radiation that enables the skin to create vitamin D. A good supply of Vitamin D helps the body to absorb calcium an essential nutrient for the formation of strong bones and teeth from the intestines. Sunbathing for just 30 minutes in swimsuit helps the body to form critical vitamin D levels.

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The sun converts high cholesterol in the blood to steroid and sex hormones necessary for reproduction. If there is no exposure to sunlight, these hormones convert to cholesterol which can be harmful if the total in the body exceeds the body requirements.

Sunlight even with a single exposure lowers blood pressure in persons with high blood pressure. The sun, unlike some pharmaceutical drugs, does not cause side effects such affecting the coenzyme Q10 which is essential for heart and cellular energy.

Psoriasis is a chronic skin infection occurring when the immune system produces extra skin cells that accumulate on its surface. When the skin cells begin shedding, they form thick red raised welts which are painful or itchy.

UVA and UVB rays make up the sun ultraviolet rays. Doctors use UVA or UVB for treatment method called photo therapy using natural or artificial light. UVB rays have more capacity in treating symptoms of psoriasis by slowing the rapid rate at which the skin grows and sheds. The skin absorbs ultraviolet rays through the skin during sunbathing or a special light box. It provides better results when a doctor administers it within specific time on the regular schedule. Treatment takes place in a home or medical setting.

UVA rays are shorter than UVB and penetrate your skin more deeply. Because UVA rays are not as effective in clearing the signs of psoriasis, a medication called psoralen is added to the light therapy to increase effectiveness.Some doctors prefer treating psoriasis using UVA instead of UVB rays. They are shorter by penetrating the skin deeper. They combine UVA treatment with psoralen, a medication that involves taking drugs orally before or apply topical prescription on the surface to allow absorption of more light. Vitamin D from the sun helps in reducing inflammation in the body.

The sun in addition to healing helps to fight infection by increasing white blood cells that the body uses to fight diseases. It also kills bad bacteria as a natural disinfectant.



Hypertension is the medical term referring to high blood pressure only that people use it when blood pressure stays high for a longer time. For someone to have hypertension, the blood pressure reading exceeds 140/90 mmHg for several weeks. The blood pressures change throughout the day thus a doctor or nurse should ensure that hypertensive reading is not a one-off.

Hypertension occurs when if one of the numbers stays higher than the normal. If there is consistent systolic pressure (higher than 140), medics term it as Isolated Systolic Hypertension. They refer the condition when the bottom number is consistent stays beyond 90(diastolic pressure) as Isolated Diastolic Hypertension. Hypertension is the cause of worry as it puts an additional strain on the heart and blood vessels. This stress might over time trigger a stroke, dementia, kidney diseases, heart attack and other heart diseases.

This type of hypertension is that which occurs without any cause that doctor can locate to explain the elevation in blood pressure. Doctors term such illnesses as idiopathic. Most of the hypertension diagnoses are in this category. Complex usually interrelated environmental and genetic factors make it difficult to determine the cause of primary also called essential hypertension. It usually builds up without symptoms over time. Although most cases of hypertension do not have an identifiable cause, there exist some risk factors which increase the likelihood of becoming hypersensitive. It is unlikely that you can do anything about it. These are:

Race – high blood pressure occurs more in dark-skinned people than those with a pale skin

Genetics- People from a family with members who have hypertension are at more risk of high blood pressure

Age- Aging causes blood vessels to become more rigid preventing them from opening up effectively as it happens to younger people. An ineffective opening of vessels increases peripheral resistance. People who are more than 60 years old are at more risk

Sex-Males are at more risk of getting high blood pressure

Secondary hypertension develops rapidly and often due to a certain identifiable cause. It often causes higher blood pressure than essential hypertension. The number of people with secondary hypertension is fewer. Nonetheless, it is easier to identify causes including:

Defects in blood vessels from birth
Kidney problems
Adrenal gland tumors
Thyroid problems
Certain medications such as cold remedies, birth control pills, and decongestants
Some prescription drugs and over-the-counter pain relievers
Alcohol abuse and chronic use
Use of illegal drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine, and heroin.
Adrenal gland tumors
Congenital heart defects

Although hypertension “appears suddenly” after entirely build over time, someone can take these preventive measures to control the risk factors.

Reduce excess weight
It is essential to use BMI to determine the ideal weight. An overweight person has more body tissue compelling the heart to pump more blood for full circulation of essential nutrients and oxygen.
It takes more blood pressure for both to reach all the tissues.
Avoid alcohol and drugs- Alcohol can cause a temporary increase in blood pressure even after moderate drinking of alcohol for some people. Alcohol consumption causes heart damage over time
Illegal drugs especially amphetamines and cocaine increase blood pressure to dangerous levels constantly thus causing hypertension.
Engage in physical activity- Active lifestyle helps to slow pulse rate and blood pressure because the heart does not have to pump faster every time you perform a physical activity even a minor one. If you are unfit, your hearty will pump faster as blood can only circulate at higher pressure.
Keep off tobacco- Nicotine in tobacco cause blood vessels to contract while other chemicals in tobacco destroy the lining of arteries and narrow the blood vessels. The blood pressure necessary to proper circulation will be higher.
Avoid stress- Too much weight in daily life can elevate blood pressure
Take salt/sodium in moderation- Taking too much salt can increase blood pressure as bodies do not tolerate much salt. It is safer to take more potassium. In fact, having too little potassium in everyday diet can cause elevated blood pressure.
Request for other medications is your OTC, or prescription medication is increasing the pulse and heart rate.
Hypertension can cause other health complications. It is essential to include blood pressure as part of the routine checkup. Even if it occurs, early detection, the correct diagnosis, and treatment help in controlling it before it becomes dangerous hypertension.



Public health is protection and improvement of people’s health and their communities. It deals with an entire population especially when the state involves itself in monitoring, regulation, and promotion.

Overall, public health specializes in protecting the well-being of entire populations. The populations can be small local neighborhoods, a whole country or a region in the world such as a continent.
Its success depends on the promotion of healthy lifestyles, prevent injury, researching on diseases and detecting diseases to prevent as well as respond to infectious disease.

Public health professionals make an effort of preventing occurrence or recurrence of health problems. Unlike doctors and nurses whose primary focus is to treat individuals with sickness or injury, public health professionals use these steps to protect communities:

Implementing educational programs such as informing the public about health risks of tobacco and alcohol
Recommending policies to authorities on how to prevent infections
Administer preventive and health improvement services
Conduct research to determine vulnerability to poor health for some people than others
Tack disease outbreaks
Develop nutritional programs to enable children access to healthy foods.
Lobby for laws that promote wellness such as promotion of smoke-free environment
The Public health workers work towards limiting health disparities. A large part of their work involves promoting of healthcare accessibility, quality and equity. The purpose is to ensure that the condition in which people love are healthy.

Public health is an exciting area as it has many options when choosing whether to complete a concentration or specialization to follow up an area of interest in the career path. Some common areas of specialization in public health include:

The focus provides students with specific training in the quantitative methods to use or adapt when designating or analyzing studies in a wide spectrum of health care. Apart from working in public health organizations, biostatisticians can work for government agencies. Pharmaceutical and medical device organizations.

Epidemiology is the study on the effects of health on larger populations and ways of reducing problems that come with a public crisis. These are the health professionals who educate the people and communities on how to achieve safe practice for good health. An epidemiologist can work for local or state government health department in a hospital setting, at a college or university.

These are methods relating to the identification and creating solutions for modern issues in public health. The concentration is on the theory of social influences and behavioral interventions on health and illness by applying design, intervention, and implementation.

It is a specialization focusing organization, planning, management and analysis of the health programs. Health science administrators specialize in health economics, systems, finance and quantitative methods. Their training is for careers in health management, policy development and health policy analysis.

Concentrations prepare students to work in those organizations dealing with public exposure to physical agents and chemicals. Successful graduates can work in academia, chemical or pharmaceutical industries and environmental protection agencies running from local, federal or state offices. Environmental health science has a broad concentration thus students should choose shift to specific topics such as molecular toxicology, environmental health policy, molecular epidemiology and global health.

Trains students to develop, execute and evaluate disaster by preparing, detecting hazards, responding, containment as well as recovery after disasters. There are many natural disasters as well catastrophes that put communities at risk hence a great demand for professionals who have skills to manage and minimize the effects.

There are many other sociality arrears in public health including:

Restaurant inspection
First responding
Health education
Community planning
Social work
Public policy maker
Public health physicians
Public health has many opportunities to diversify, specialize, career growth and to improve communities.



Pain is an unpleasant physical sensation occurring as a result of nerve sensation due to illness or injury. It can occur to a distinct area in the form of an injury, or it can spread through the body due to disorders like fibromyalgia. By the time most people visit a physician or inform a caregiver about pain, they have tried natural ways of remedying the pain in vain.

Pain is usually a sign of an underlying condition but is essential that health practitioners find a way to relieving it to ease the suffering before diagnosing the likely causes.
These medications help in fast relief from pain.

OTC pain relievers include:

Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as naproxen and ibuprofen
Both NSAIDs and acetaminophen help tom receive pain from stiffness and pain aches, but only NSAIDs can reduce inflammation (irritation and swelling). Both also help to reduce fever.

NSAIDs are sold according to prescription strength by a physician while topical relievers are available without a prescription. You can buy them as sprays. Lotions or creams for application to the skin for pain relief from arthritis or sore muscles.

Prescription corticosteroids relieve pain from inflammations on the body by easing swelling, itching, allergic reaction and skin redness. They are effective when you want to reduce pain from arthritis, asthma or to treat allergies. When patient take them to control pain, the corticosteroids are in the form of injections or pills targeting a specific joint. Prednisone and methylprednisolone are examples of corticosteroids.

Doctors usually prescribe the lowest dose necessary for pain relief for a short period to prevent possible side effects.

These are drugs for treating pain and emotional conditions by adjusting neurotransmitters (natural chemicals) levels in the brain. Antidepressants medications increase the availability of body’s signals for relaxation for signals and well-being enabling pain control to take effect for a patient with chronic pain conditions which do not respond to the usual treatments. Antidepressants work better in relieving nerve and neuropathic pain.

Menstrual pain and some types of headaches such as migraines are some of the chronic pain conditions that antidepressants treat. Treating chronic pain requires the patient to take a steady build-up of dose over time but lower doses than treating depression.

Opioids are narcotic pain relievers containing semi-synthetic, synthetic or natural opiates. They help to treat acute pain such as that which occurs after surgery. Some of the opioids that physicians prescribe frequently are codeine, Oxycodone, and morphine.

The advantage of these drugs is that they do not cause bleeding like some pain relievers. It is unlikely for addiction to occur as doctors rarely prescribe them for short periods. The potential of addiction becomes real if a patient takes opioids for long-term treatment of chronic pain.

If pain relievers does not happen after usual treatments a doctor might refer the patient to a pain management specialist. These specialists may try other treatments like certain types of rare medicines or physical therapy.

One of the methods that pains specialists recommend is the use of patches that they place on the skin to send signals that can help in stopping the pain.

PCA (Patient-controlled analgesia) is another method for controlling pain by allowing a patient to control the amount of pain medication that a pain specialist will administer. It is an in-patient treatment method whereby a patient receives pre-measured dose by pushing a computerized pump’s button to control the dose of pain medication. The pump connects to a small tube allowing intravenous injection of medicine just under the skin or into the spinal area.

It is important to get doctor advice before taking any of the above medications for pain relief.



Medical and medication management is a system that pharmacists use to work closely with doctors to ensure that their patients receive optimal outcomes from prescription medications that they take. It has led to the emergence of medication management therapy from covering a broad range of medical activities including:

These signs show that the likelihood of having neck strain injuries.

Pain when moving the head sideways, forward or backward
Pain of stiffness in the process of moving the head to look over the shoulder
Decreased range of motion on the neck with pain and tightness that cause muscles to feel knotted or hard.
Headaches with pain that radiates towards the forehead from the base of the skull
The pain from neck strain injury can be immediate or in some instances take hour or days before the neck starts hurting.

Sometimes it could be necessary to determine if the cause of pain on the is a neck strain injury or a symptom of another illness. A doctor may use computed tomography(CT) scans, X-rays or other tests to diagnose whiplash and rule out other problems.

The leading cause of most neck strain injuries is poor posture mostly when it combines with aging-relating wear and tear. You can prevent neck strain by changing your position when doing some of the daily routines.

Ensure that you stand and sit with the shoulders in a straight line over the hips with the ears directly over the shoulders.

It is essential to adjust the desk, computer and the chair for the monitor to be at the most comfortable position which is the eye level. Sit while placing the knees slightly lower than the hips and use the armrests on the chair for support.

Sitting while bending over a computer for long hours causes neck strain is essential to avoid slouching or leaning the head forward. A safe position is to sit on the chair with firm support on the lower back with feet firmly on the floor. Make sure that you relax the shoulders. Drivers should adjust the car seat to an upright position that helps to support the head and lower back. A safe sitting position allows the arms to be slightly flexed and comfortable. Straining for the steering wheel when traveling long distances is likely to cause neck strain injuries.

Tucking the phone between the shoulder and ear to talks while working on another task strains the neck muscles. It is an unnatural position that makes the neck susceptible to strain injury. Using a speakerphone or headset is the safe alternative to slipping the phone between the ear and neck. Using a document holder helps in securing the reference paperwork on the same level with the computer screen.

Sleeping with the neck and head aligning with the body helps to prevent straining of the neck. A small pillow under the neck helps in enhancing support. Sleeping on the back with the laps elevated on a pillow helps in flattening the spinal muscles.

Do not carry heavy luggage such as bags with straps on your shoulders. The weight can strain the neck and cause whiplash. It is also important to only lift light weights even for exercising or sports. Lifting heavy weights cause or worsen the stiffness and pain from neck strain injuries. When lifting anything, the proper technique is to let the knees to take the pressure but not the back.

Do not sit for too long behind the desk or traveling long distance. Moving around helps in stretching the neck and shoulders. It is necessary to change positions and walk about if you are working on something overhead.

The neck helps in head movement and contain vital anatomical structures such as airway, blood vessels as well as the spinal is important to try everything that helps in preventing neck strain injuries.