Influence of Genes and Environment

Influence of Genes and Environmentan unwed woman by the name Eleanor Louise Cowell in 1946 in the United States of America. Ted Bundy grew up knowing that his grandparents were his parents and his mother was introduced to him as his elder sister. He later obtained his bachelor’s degree from Utah University in his early adulthood. He grew up in a challenging environment such that his childhood experience made him grow up into a bad person. The identity of his real father was not disclosed to him in the childhood period of which made him lack good parental direction. When his mother got married, the stepfather used to bully him due to his shininess personality. This paper will discuss how the environment and genes contribute to change in behavior in line with Ted Bundy an American serial killer.

A serial killer is an individual who performs more than three murder cases in a month out of own abnormal selfish gain. Ted Bundy was a serial killer who admitted to having done thirty murder cases in less than four years and several rape cases. His childhood environment greatly influenced his later behavior, for instance, he grew up in a lonely environment which made him a psychopath. The loneliness nature made Ted Bundy be involved in negative behavior like watching a porn video and this resulted in him being a sexually aggressive individual. Ted Bundy suffered attachment disorder in his childhood experience as a result of his mother being introduced to him as his older sister (Owen and Michael 2006). When his mother, known to Ted as his sister, got married, the stepfather used to bully him so much and this tortured his mind and made him lack good parental direction. In relation to his behavior, his grandfather was of raging temper day in day out.

Everyone in the family suffered from the violent acts of Bundy’s grandfather hence making the family unstable both physically and emotionally. Once in his childhood, Ted Bundy witnessed his grandfather raping Louise his mother of which contributed to his suffering both physical and psychological torture. The raping instinct later surfaced in Ted Bundy’s life and so many women were raped and killed. The extraordinary abuse and extreme violence from his grandfather made Ted Bundy grow into a serial killer and rapist. At this point, Ted Bundy’s behavior is attributed to his uneventful childhood environment.

Ted Bundy started violent actions when he was at a tender age. In school, Bundy wanted to hit his fellow scout boy with a stick from behind for no reason. According to Holt, in “conversation with a killer” he describes Bundy as an individual who likes scaring people, bullying them and getting them in pain. As a teen, Bundy liked laying traps for people to fall in, for instance, he was fond of digging holes in the ground, putting sticks insides and covering the hole with vegetation. His traps once injured a girl who fell into the hole and injured her leg to the extent of going into shock due to excessive bleeding (Rowe and David 1994). Ted Bundy also had shoplifting behavior at a tender age; he could do this for the things he admired and had no money to buy them. He wanted to live a life beyond his parent’s means and therefore turned out to be a thief as a result.

The stealing behavior is linked to both the genetic makeup and environment he was raised from. The desire to have fancy things in one’s life originates from inside and the lack of money to buy the fancy things he wanted to be was environmentally based.

Ted Bundy’s education also greatly influenced his career as a serial killer at a later stage after college. Ted Bundy studied law at the University of Puget Sound and while pursuing his psychology degree, he gained more knowledge and insights about how to isolate criminals. The law career made him perform the murder, later represent himself in court and escape custody because he knew all the tricks surrounding the law field (Birch et al 1998). Ted Bundy as an undergraduate student at the Washington University majored in psychology which helped him to manipulate people’s minds when performing his killing acts. He used a high level of psychology to play around with women’s minds, full of pretense that made women sympathize and draw near him without knowing his soul intentions. It is said that sometimes he used crutches, not that he is injured but for women to see him and sympathize with him thus drawing near to help and took this as an advantage to rape them.

Health Promotion in Action

Health Promotion in Action

Health Promotion in Action


The world is currently experiencing a triple disease burden which constitutes aspects such as the communicable disease’ unfinished agenda, re-emerging and newly emerging disorders, and the unprecedented increase in the prevalence of non-communicable chronic illnesses. There is, thus, an increasing need to provide high standards of care through health promotion. Various aspects outside the sector of healthcare affect health; these include political, economic, and social factors (Kim & Nahar, 2018). These factors consequently determine the setting in which people work, live, grow, and age, and the approaches that aim to address people’s health needs. Therefore, to attain the best healthcare standards, Kim & Nahar (2018) underscores the need for a detailed holistic approach which extends beyond the usual curative care and involves stakeholders, health providers, and communities. Holistic healthcare approaches aim to empower people to be responsible for their health and promote public health leadership and inter-sectoral efforts intended to establish good health policies and develop effective health frameworks. The elements mentioned above capture the essence or nature of health promotion. The purpose of this research paper is to delineate the differences between health promotion and health education, identify a health promotion referral organization in the community, and provide a review of the organization’s activities in the community.

Health Promotion and Health Education


Health promotion refers to the process of fostering an individual’s capacity to assume control over his health as a strategy to improve one’s overall health (Samara, Anderson, & Aro, 2019). Health promotion incorporates interventions at the political, social, organizational, and personal level to encourage adaptations that aim to protect or improve health. Health promotion, thus, assumes a more comprehensive health-promoting approach because it employs multi-sectoral methods in addressing health issues and involves different players. Health promotion focuses on responding to developments that have an indirect or direct bearing on health, for instance, cultural belief, environments, differences in consumption patterns, and inequalities (Chafjiri, Shirinkam, & Karimi, 2018). Health education, on the other hand, refers to a consciously developed opportunity for learning which incorporates some mode of communication designed to better health literacy by facilitating the development of life skills and improving knowledge associated with community and individual health. Health education is, therefore, not limited to data dissemination (health-related); it also promotes self-efficacy, skills, and motivation which are necessary for health improvement (Kim & Nahar, 2018). Health education enhances the dissemination of data regarding the underlying environmental, economic, and social conditions that impact health. Health education, hence, aims to provide health knowledge and information to communities and individuals and provide individuals with skills that enable them to embrace healthy behaviors voluntarily (Chafjiri, Shirinkam, & Karimi, 2018).


Health Promotion Referral Organization and its Application


One primary health promotion referral organization in the community is the American Diabetes Association, commonly abbreviated as ADA. The ADA is a nonprofit organization based in the USA whose aim is to educate the public about the disease and help individuals diagnosed with Diabetes by funding studies focused on managing, curing, and preventing Diabetes (Felicia, 2019). The organization conducts various populace health management programs designed to improve health. Some of these initiatives include Diabetes INSIDE and the Risk Test campaign. Diabetes INSIDE is a long-term strategy for the ADA which aims to translate over seventy-eight years of the institution’s advocacy and science into practice by reinforcing the country’s health care system to better populace outcomes for persons with Diabetes. The objective of Diabetes INSIDE is to stimulate, effectuate, and encourage the betterment of health in various systems of health care, public health sectors, and the multiple organizations and stakeholders dedicated to improving the outcomes of Diabetes. To achieve this goal, Diabetes INSIDE uses health services and population health research approaches, activities, and tools to better the care quality for diabetes and populace outcomes in various health care organizations. Diabetes INSIDE employs the use of populace health information analytics and science to tailor interventions towards demographics, resources, goals, and needs of health care partners and populaces they serve (Felicia, 2019). Some of these interventions include self-management (patients) education and support programs, provider professional development, multidisciplinary team coaching, and QI training for professionals (health care). Other intervention strategies include dissemination and recognition strategy and community-integrated health strategies. Felicia (2019), in her review, provides an example of the efficacy of QI data in delivering population health results following the application of Diabetes INSIDE at Parkland Health & Hospital System located in Texas. The QI project’s focus was to evaluate the introduction of insulin to individuals with unmanaged Diabetes. Some of the QI interventions used during the initiative include EHR data for tracking and identifying individuals with uncontrolled Diabetes, previsit arrangements for insulin introduction purposes, provider training and education, and shared medical appointments. After the intervention, there was a significant increase (twenty-four percent) in insulin initiation at the population level (Felicia, 2019).

During the year 2016, ADA, through a joint effort between them and the Ad Council, AMA, and CDC launched the Risk Test Campaign (Felicia, 2019). The campaign focused on promoting public awareness of the National DPP (Diabetes Prevention Program) and prediabetes to minimize the prevalence of T2D. Today, the American Diabetes Association manages the Risk Test Crusade. The program allows individuals to ascertain their prediabetes risks with th help of online tools that require around one minute to complete (Felicia, 2019). One can also conduct the assessment using paper format. The online assessment tool provides individuals with a significantly high prediabetes risk (score ≥5) with data on how to approach the issue with a physician and resources to enroll for an online or local National DPP (Felicia, 2019). People at a significantly low prediabetes risk (score <5) are typically provided with programs and information that promote healthy living, caregiver services and toolkits, invitations to regular rescreening and advocate tools. The American Diabetes Association aims to reach communities and populations that at a significantly high risk of Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes; this includes people aged between forty-five and sixty-five years and the ethnic minority populaces, for instance, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. Currently, the ADA is involving members, stakeholders, partners, and supporters through different ways, for example, community-based and health care provider outreach and social media platforms to ignite this campaign (Felicia, 2019).




Health promotion is a crucial concept that extends beyond the provision of health care. Health promotion aims to establish supportive environments, reinforce community actions, reorient health care services, and develop personal skills. Health promotion operates through active and concrete communities by setting priorities, planning and implementing strategies, and making decisions to sustain better health. Moreover, it encourages social and personal development by providing data, health education, and promoting life skills. Health education aims to provide health knowledge and information to communities and individuals and provide individuals with skills that enable them to embrace healthy behaviors voluntarily. Health promotion referral institutions such as the ADA employs different strategies such as the Risk Test campaign to improve health.




  1. Chafjiri, R., Shirinkam, F., and Karimi, H. (2018). Investigating the effect of education on health-promoting lifestyle among the elderly of Ramsar in 2017. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 7(3), 612–617.

  2. Felicia H. (2019). 2018 Health Care and Education Presidential Address: The American Diabetes Association in the Era of Health Care Transformation. Diabetes Care, 42(3): 352-358.

  3. Kim, R. W., and Nahar, V. K. (2018). A Guide for Understanding Health Education and Promotion Programs. Health Promotion Practice, 19(2), 167–169. 4. Samara, A., Andersen, P. T., and Aro, A. R. (2019). Health Promotion and Obesity in the Arab Gulf States: Challenges and Good Practices. Journal of Obesity, 1–6.

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela was a great figure in South Africa and became the first black president. He was held behind bars for his involvement in the anti-racist movement. Mandela was also a social rights activist (Joffe 9). He also doubled his career as a politician, as well as an anthropologist. After getting involved in resistance movement while still a young person in his 20s, he joined the ANC in 1942. For over two decades, Mandela directed a very peaceful campaign that was characterized by non-violent defiance against the administration and the racist policies.

Mandela was arrested and spent over two decades in prison for his involvement as well as offences that were associated with politics. In 1963, together with De Klerk, they were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (Angelou 7). They were given the prestigious award because of their involvement and efforts to do away with the apartheid system that rocked the nation. Mandela will be remembered for his acts which are a source of inspiration to many people, especially for his engagement in civil rights activities globally.

The Early Life of Nelson Mandela

Mandela’s father was a chief who also served as a counsellor for the tribal chiefs for many years. However, he lost both his title and fortune over a dispute between him and a local colonial magistrate (Angelou 8). At the time, the younger Mandela was mainly involved in playing the games of younger boys. He acted the make rights passage scenes using the toys that he improvised from natural materials that were easily available to him, such as clay and branches of trees.


Mandela was baptized in the Methodists Church. Besides, he became the first to get an opportunity to attend school among his family members. Due to the bias of the whites, and as per the custom, he was named Nelson by his new teacher. After the death of his father, his life greatly changed (Hansford 24). Subsequently, Mandela left the carefree life that he was accustomed to. He quickly adapted to the environment with a more sophisticated surrounding (Hansford 25). He was treated well and accorded the same status and responsibilities as the other two children of the royal chief. He later took classes in a school that was next to the royal chief’s palace. He mainly studies English, geography, history, and Xhosa.

Mandela’s Political Career

Mandela welcomed the idea of circumcision to partake in his community’s customs and decided to transition from childhood to adulthood. During the proceedings, his moods changed by a speech that was delivered by Chief Meligqili who spoke very emotionally about young men by explaining that they were enslaved in their land since it was controlled by the whites (Adebajo 15). However, Mandela opined that the chief’s words never made sense but later he made a resolve to have an independent country.

Mandela became very actively involved in the anti-racist movement and joined ANC, with the goal of transforming it to grassroots movement. The party later obtained more strength from millions of rural peasants as well as the working-class who lacked voice under the prevailing regime (Adebajo 15). For over two decades, Mandela got involved in directing peaceful and nonviolent activities of defiance and the regime and the racist policies. In 1956, together with 150 other people, he was charged with treason due to the political stands and advocacy.

Prison Years and Presidency

Mandela got engaged in nonviolent protests against the racist’s policies and apartheid. He changed his views and believed that armed struggle was the only way to obtain change against the regime and the racist policies. In 1961, he made changes in the party and was dedicated to disrupt and use other tactics, such as guerrilla to end the apartheid system (Lazea, Roxana, and Camil 166). During the same period, he organized workers strike but was later arrested for leading the strike and was put behind bars for five years. He was tried again and sentenced to life imprisonment mainly for political offences, which also included the mention of sabotage.

Benefits of Soccer

Benefits of Soccer


To honor the 2014 FIFA World Cup during the summer of 2014, below is a list of how soccer is beneficial to everyone. Reading the list will provide a clear understanding as to why soccer is the number one sport globally. The FIFA World Cup has dominated all media, primarily social media. Numerous people from different parts of the world could observe the frenzy everywhere.


Watching or playing soccer is essential for the physical, social, and health conditions of individuals.

When people play or watch soccer together as friends, colleagues, or family members, it promotes bonding, which enhances social connection and interaction. For children and adults who play soccer, it allows them to be part of a Group. For instance, a sports team is significant in enabling team members to interact and learn social skills as a group (Shamoo, Baugher, & Germeroth, 2015). They can learn the difference between aggressiveness and assertiveness through team training.  Additionally, commutation is a crucial aspect of life; hence, while watching football, people exchange cheers, ideas, and spend more time together. Often people look forward to watching soccer together at home, bars, or live events.

Now that we know the social benefits of soccer, next is the health impact of playing soccer. Playing football is fun and a great workout. It increases the cardiovascular health and aerobic capacity of the players (Hang & Dongen, 2015). As well, their body fats become low, improved muscle tone, and increased bone strength. An excellent example is a fact that all 11 players in a team use their legs, torso, and head to throw the ball. According to the scenery of football game, players may be standing around, running slow or fast, and sprinting.

Now that we understand the social and health gain of soccer, it finally is the physical advantage that helps in the development of a soccer player (Macnaughton & Meldrum, 2017). The increase of endurance and stamina is vital to a player. He/she has to develop the ability to physically and mentally last long on a field. Football also increases reflex and agility. For instance, players can efficiently react to a given moment or movement. When a player switches a point to attack, the defender kicks the ball to the other side of the field.


Today we discussed the social, physical, and health importance of football to everyone. Both the players and spectators benefit from soccer sports. It allows people to communicate and interact with each other. I hope next time we will focus on understanding how soccer game workers, including the number of players involved.



  1. Hang, J., and Dongen, K. V. (2015). Friendship Network Centrality and the Performance of Soccer Players: The Role of Cognitive Accuracy. Journal of Human Performance , 28 (3), 265-279.
  2. Macnaughton, J. F., and Meldrum, J. (2017). Dreams of Social Inclusion True Experiences of Street Soccer through Fictional Representation. CReative Aproaches to Research , 10 (1), 52-70.
  3. Shamoo, A. E., Baugher, W., and Germeroth, R. M. (2015). Sports Medicine for Coaches and Athletes: Soccer. London and New York: Routledge.

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival (DACA)

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival (DACA)


The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) policy was created in 2012 to tackle the needs of the undocumented and young immigrants who moved to America as minors. Even though the system does not provide its target population a pathway to permanent and legal residence in the country, it offers them temporary work authorization, protection from deportations, and facilitates their application for a social security number (Gonzalez).  The beneficiaries of the program are expected to renew it every two years. Since its inception, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) has improved education, employment opportunities, and wages for the recipients.

Analysis of how DACA Has Been Beneficial to the Undocumented People

DACA recipients are diverse as they come from distinct nationalities and regions around the globe.  However, a significant number of them come from Peru (1.1%), Mexico (79.4%), Honduras (2.3%), and Guatemala (2.6%) (Crouse).  The program has had a positive impact on their education, employment, and their living standards as discussed

Impact of DACA on Education

Researchers in 2013 found out that the DACA enhanced its beneficiary’s access to educational opportunities, which have improved their enrollment and education status in the United States. According to Scholars at the Migration Policy Institute, approximately 37% of the program recipients in 2017 had registered with the postsecondary education program (Crouse). The researchers also found out that DACA beneficiaries, just like their US-borne adults, are more likely to enroll in college (18% vs. 20%)( Crouse). Nonetheless, they are subjected to steep tuition fees, a factor that is somehow threatening their enrollment rates.

The situation is worsened further by a lack of federal financial support, forcing most of them to depend on high-interest private loans, private scholarships, and personal savings to fund their college-related and tuition expenses (Crouse).  Nonetheless, some states such as Michigan are implementing tuition-equity policies to minimize the financial pressure incurred by undocumented students in their endeavor to access quality education (Crouse). Despite these challenges, young immigrants, to be precise DACA beneficiaries, are among the most educated generation of the United States, reflecting the importance of the program on the undocumented immigrants.

Impact on Employment

DACA recipients benefit from a temporary work permit, which enables them to engage in the labor market fully. Wong and his colleagues state that 91% of individuals enrolled in the program are employed in the various sectors of the United States economy, and can access high paying jobs that are in line with their training and educational qualifications. Accordingly, some through the work permit opt to start their businesses. For instance, in 2016, the rate of DACA recipients opening their companies was 3.1%, a rate that outpaces American citizens with business creation (Wong et al.). Therefore, the temporary work permits offered by DACA not only enables individuals to get well-paying jobs and concentrate in their field of specializations but also allows them to start businesses that provide employment opportunities to the wider population. The resultant effect is the improved economy of the nation and the living standards of the undocumented migrants and their families.