A headache is a pain in the neck and head region. It can be sporadic lasting for a short moment or chronic.

To many people, a headache is just that, and the difference is only in the severity of the pain. What is unknown to many is that headaches are in these different types.


It is the most common cause of a primary headache which occurs on its own without other causes. It usually begins slowly and gradually around midday. The pain is mild to moderate feeling like a band around the head. The pain often affects both sides spreading from or to the neck. Tension-type headaches could be episodic or chronic. Occasional attacks cause pain for a few hours and in worse instances last for a few days. A persistent headache stays constant for 15 or more days in a month for a period lasting at least 3 months.


Rebound also known as medication-over headaches occur after excessive use of medication for treating headache symptoms. A rebound headache mostly begins early in the morning and persist all day. Pain medication could relieve the symptoms, but resumes after the effect wear off.A rebound headache can cause various symptoms and pain that could be different each day. It also includes these symptoms:

Along with a headache itself, rebound headaches can cause:

  • Nasal congestion
  • Neck pain
  • Reduced the quality of sleep
  • Restlessness
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A recurrent throbbing primary headache affects one side of the head lasting for few hours to 2-3 days. Blurred vision and nausea often accompany migraine. Many people get a migraine frequently; It is the sixth highest reason for people to miss work.A migraine headache may cause throbbing pulsating pain to one side of the head accompanied by sensory disturbances, light-headedness, nausea and blurred vision.


Cluster headaches occur and cause intense pain around one eye. The mostly happen at a time of the year usually for 1-2 months. A cluster headache lasts for 15 minutes to 3 hours happening suddenly in the day once to eight times.

These symptoms signify the occurrence of cluster headaches:

  • Severe, sharp or burning pain around one eye
  • Paining area could turn red and swell
  • Dropping of the eyelid
  • Stuffy and runny nasal passage

No symptoms of headache symptoms occur between the clusters. The absence of symptoms may at times last for many months.


Sudden and severe headaches that many complain to be the “worst headache.”In less than a minute the headache reaches the maximum intensity and lasts for over 5 minutes.It is important to seek medical evaluation immediately after experience a severe headache. It could be a thunderclap headache which that is secondary to life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral venous thrombosis or aneurysms (ruptured or unruptured).


A sinus headache causes pain within the head’s sinus cavities and usually occurs alongside sinus infection. The sufferer gets pain and tenderness in the sinus with discharge from the nose. At times the face swells.

Other symptoms are:

  • The pressure around cheeks, eyes, and forehead. At times the head throbs.
  • Stuffy sinus
  • Feeling of ache in the upper teeth
  • Fatigue
  • Worsening of pain after lying down or bending forward

Many people confuse a sinus headache with a migraine. A migraine can sometimes have nasal sighs such as congestion or watery discharge. Close to 90 percent of patients who inform doctors about their suspicion of having sinus headache find out that they have migraines after examination.

As you just read, there are different types of a headache. Getting the correct diagnosis is necessary for you to determine the classification of a headache and the best treatment.



Cholesterol is a type of fat manifesting in the blood. An appropriate level of is harmless but an excess builds up is dangerous. It causes dangerous inflammation and dangerous blood clots which can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Lowering cholesterol levels is essential and you can attain it through these ways:


You can reduce cholesterol and improve heart health by adjusting your diet even when you have been eating unhealthily for long by these changes.

  • Take healthier fats

Saturated fats in dairy products and red meat raise the total and bad (Low-density lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol. A seven percent of daily calories should come from saturated fats. Taking more unsaturated and low dairy fats is essential. It is healthier to eat leaner fats of meat.

Avoid trans fats as they affect the levels of cholesterol increasing the bad and lowering the good. The bad combination leads to increasing the risk of heart attack. Trans fats come from fried and refined foods such as cookies, snack cakes, and crackers. A small amount of trans fat might seem safe, but the accumulation reaches to dangerous levels over time. Read ingredients and avoid those with partially hydrogenated oils. The packaging labels on some products indicate that they are trans-fat free, but it is not always reliable. Only food containing than 0.5 grams on serving qualifies to be trans – fat-free.

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Omega -3 fatty acids rich foods do not increase the LDL cholesterol. They even introduce other benefits like improving the “good” or High-Density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol. These fatty acids reduce a type of fat in the blood known as triglycerides and blood pressure. Mackerel, herring, and salmon are some types of fish where you can get plenty omega-3 fatty acids. The other good sources include almonds, walnuts and ground flaxseeds.

Some grocery and health food stores sell whey protein powders. Use them according to the direction in the packaging to ensure that you get the best results.


  • Weight loss

Extra weight contributes to increasing and maintenance of high cholesterol. You can improve the levels of healthy cholesterol by losing as little as 5% of body weight. Start to lose your weight by evaluating the eating habits and daily habits. Small changes such as eating to overcome boredom or frustration can increase bad cholesterol. It is better to do something that activates your body system such as taking a walk. Avoid eating aimlessly. If you pick food at fast food joints for breakfast or lunch, make sure that you eat healthier non-processed food for evening meals. You should also substitute fatty foods such as potato chip with air-popped popcorn or carrot sticks. Supplement healthy eating by incorporating more activity into the daily routine such as walking to some places rather than drive, parking farther from the office or using staircase instead of elevators.

  • Moderate alcohol intake

Moderate alcohol can help in increasing HDL, the beneficial cholesterol but these benefits are not crucial enough for non-drinkers to start drinking. Drinkers should reduce the amount they take. One drink a day is enough for healthy adults older than 65 years. It is still safe for men younger than 65 years to take two drinks daily.Exceeding these amounts leads to serious health problems in addition to increased cholesterol including stroke, heart failure, and blood pressure.


Exercising for most days of the week increase physical activity improves the levels of HDL cholesterol. At least 30 minutes of exercises a day is a good starting point. You can turn your effort to reduce and regulate cholesterol by exercising to a weight loss venture by adding physical activity by intervals of 10 or more minutes. Add intervals that you can keep up with for your comfort.

It may take longer time for some people to see the results of their lifestyle or diet changes, but it is not a reason to despair. The best thing is to continue until you start seeing the changes. A doctor might recommend some medication if the bad cholesterol is stubborn, but it is essential to maintain the lifestyle changes and keep medication dose to the lowest.



Blood pressure(BP) is the force at which the blood wields on the arteries when flowing through them. Sometimes high blood pressure is called hypertension a medical term for referring to this condition if it remains the same for long. Many things can trigger a sudden increase in blood pressure which is dangerous since it can cause hardening of arteries, stroke, heart disease and increases the risk of chronic hypertension.

These factors contribute to an increase in blood pressure.


Chance of developing high blood pressure are higher if your close family members have hypertension. An international scientific study has found 8 common genetic differences that could increase the risk of getting a high blood pressure.Ethnic background is also a cause of higher risk for blood pressure. People with an ancestry connection with African and South Asia are a higher risk of developing hypertension.


Blood vessels begin losing flexibility and arteries become harder when people start aging. It increases the chance of clogging the blood arteries.An older heart also has problems in pumping the blood at optimal levels. The heart’s natural pacemaker system which regulates heartbeat is likely to have more fats deposits that affect the functioning of the heart and affect the ability to pump the blood.


Intense and sudden episodes of anxiety or stress cause a surge of hormones and a temporary increase in blood pressure since at the time, vessels narrow yet the heart beats faster.Stress causes temporary spikes of increased blood pressure, but the root of the long-term problem is overeating, excess drinking of alcohol and poor sleeping habits.It is advisable to avoid things that increase stress levels rather than take the risk. Exercising for 30 minutes three to five time a week is known to reduce stress levels.


Some prescriptions over counter medications, supplements, and other medical substances can cause a rise in blood pressure. The reason is that some of these substances interfere with the body systems or interfere with medications that help in lowering BP. It is essential to ask a physician to regularly check your blood pressure if you take antidepressants as they change the response to brain chemicals that affect your mood thus increasing the blood pressure.

Birth control pills and other hormonal devices have hormones that could narrow smaller blood pressures and trigger an increase in blood pressure. The risk is higher if a woman is overweight, a smoker or over 35 years.

Increases blood pressure is not a must for any woman who uses hormonal birth control pills just that it is essential to go for a check-up every 6-12 month.


Smoking involves inhaling nicotine by causing inflammation within body’s circulatory system and changing the proper functioning of blood vessels. After some time, it hardens the arteries that in turn causes high blood pressure. These harmful changes begin occurring after smoking the first cigarette. Every puff makes your blood lesser red and bluer. The constant changing deprives the brain of the essential energy of proper functioning including pumping the blood.


Taking too much alcohol can increase blood pressure to unhealthy levels. The risk begins after you exceed three drinks in a sitting. Blood pressure increase could be temporary although frequent binge drinking can cause long-term increases.Alcohol has calories that could contribute to excess weight gain, a factor in increasing blood pressure. Alcohol may also interfere with effective of BP medications and increase side effects.


Taking too much alcohol can increase blood pressure to unhealthy levels. The risk begins after you exceed three drinks in a sitting. Blood pressure increase could be temporary although frequent binge drinking can cause long-term increases.Alcohol has calories that could contribute to excess weight gain, a factor in increasing blood pressure. Alcohol may also interfere with effective of BP medications and increase side effects.


Taking too much sugar over time causes weight gain which in turn increases the risk of blood pressure by reducing the efficient flow of blood.Taking too much salt makes the body to hold onto extra water and in turn, increase blood volume in arteries. Sodium also causes constricting of small arteries producing more resistance to blood flow. The result is a rise in blood pressure.

Other small contributors to high blood pressure are

  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Pregnancy t
  • Diabetes
  • Psoriasis
  • Chronic kidney disease

The best way to avoid high blood pressure is to avoid risk factors, regular exercising and living a healthier lifestyle.



Graduating from a medical school takes graduates to another phase of making choices that contribute to the success of a career in real practice. The first thing is to determine a pathway suiting your personality and interest. Making a wise choice makes you happier and boost your chances of becoming a successful doctor. Settling down into medical practice after graduation is not abrupt, but these steps will help you to achieve your objectives.


Internship contributes to the success of the medical graduates by providing an opportunity for hands-on skills and experience.An internship is a period during which new medical school graduate starts working under the supervision of a doctor within the confines of the training program completed at nursing school. For instance, if you trained to be a surgeon, it is the only area that you can be an intern. An intern is a holder of a medical degree but does not have licensure to practice. This step is crucial to becoming a qualified doctor, surgeon, dentist or another specialist. Getting an internship position is competitive hence students should make their application for placement to hospitals and medical centers during their last year in school.

Interviews and matching of graduates might take a few months thus it is wise to apply early to several health facilities.In countries such as the united states, completing an internship is a minimum requirement to get a general license allowing practice in medicine. Interestingly, some medical settings are integrating internship into residency. In such settings, interns begin at the first-year level of residency. It is the first many for medical school graduates to practice hands on the theory learned during medical school albeit under qualified medical practitioners in real medical settings. Many continue interns continue working for several years at medical hospitals to acquire all the skills and experience necessary for specialization in their field.


In the settings that do not regard interns as first-year residents, residency is the period after an intern year. At this point, it is allowed for the physician to begin practicing as a general practitioner but after completing an internship year and passing a third level exam. Whereas it is possible to practice independently, most prefer to join residency as further training for them to learn much more skills. Residency can range from 2-7 years of additional education depending on specialty. For instance, a residency to become a family doctor can take only two years. A graduate who specializes in surgery which is more demanding will require more time probably up to 5 years to complete his residency.


A fellow is a physician who chooses to train further is a specific specialty after completing residency. Fellowship is optional and set aside for doctors with full credentials but useful for anyone interested in training in a chosen subspecialty. Fellowship can be helpful to the success of a medical career as it allows specialization.For example, after completing a residency as a general surgeon, there is a possibility to join fellowship in orthopedic surgery to gain specific training in the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the joints, bones, muscles, arteries and associated nerves.


After getting a medical degree, do not isolate your classmates, faculty and any healthcare professionals you interact with during your training. They are essential when you need to network, consult or help.

Maintaining close contacts with family and friends is also crucial for your well-being even if you will begin your practice at another geographical location away from them. These are influential people who have been supporting you through the tough moments such as when you fail an exam or dealing with awkward moments during clinical rotations. Regular conversations with these people will make you feel better after long hectic days at work as medical practice can be straining.

It is crucial to choose the best career path after graduating from medical school to be a successful medic. You must consider many factors the specialty’s pressure, available resources, the patient population, and competition. It is important that to have a clear vision when making your choice on a field to specialize in after medical school to avoid regrets in future. Research, do a self-reflection of the area of medicine you like most. Pursue your passion.




The organization is critical to the success of a medical assignment. It helps you to focus on your studying without unnecessary distractions and stay current on assignments. You could have been good in last minute studying, but that does not work well at med school. The coursework is massive thus you cannot cram that amount of material in one night before an exam.

Always organize your work by breaking it down into manageable chunks. Instead of waiting to read the semester’s work, focus on the essential things you need to work through the week. Breaking down class work into smaller tasks prevents to avoid a struggle to understand everything at once. There is a reason why medical school programs take many years.


It is essential for you to know your abilities. You must have been a top performer to earn admission to med school. You need to understand that your classmates are equally bright thus you cannot be on top of calls in everything. If your results do not satisfy you, take it as an opportunity to identify the weaknesses rather than become demoralized.

Rotations can also be trouble, but you are not the first student to make mistakes. Everyone misses a procedure or flops a test. Understand that you cannot be perfect and use it as an opportunity learn. You can even ask a resident for advice on areas to improve and improvement strategies.

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Graduation school is like a marathon. It will take time to gain confidence, balance responsibilities and manage challenges. After sometimes you will find everything falling into place.


It is essential to be friendly to your classmates as you will be with them throughout your program. As you progress, they will be a great resource for information. Determine those with whom you share similar interest and form a study group. Studying together is helpful in sharing knowledge. You will get help on difficult and understand the fulfillment of sharing knowledge in your best areas.

Additionally, your classmates come in handy during the tough times. You can share your frustrations and encourage each other. A good way of finding people with similar interests is by joining clubs at medical school. Many medical schools hold club fairs at the beginning of school year. Join something that draws your attention and focusing on the things you want to learn.


Some schools arrange formal mentoring programs to connect the faculty, senior and junior members of the staff. Take advantage of such moments to meet individuals from different backgrounds and fields. You will get invaluable advice from other students on matters they deal with, how they do it helping to expand your viewpoint about the career. Faculty mentors have seen many students through medical school hence have the best advice on overcoming challenges and provide a broader view of training. Faculty members also help in weighing options and determining the best priorities.


Medical school is a place to get new experiences and growth opportunities. Join the class with a mind that everything is fixed without a room for change. For instance, if you join med school thinking that can pursue a specific specialty but find a different one to be more interesting, it is not too late for changes. Take clinical rotation elective in areas that challenge you. Sometimes stepping outside your comfort zone helps you to grow and improve. These challenges might reveal other capabilities you had not thought.

Employing the above strategies will see you succeed in medical school. At a personal level, you should be disciplined, self-driven, persistent and flexible.