Drinking water is essential for our bodies. In fact, water takes up many parts of the human at 60%. It is not much as you think but needs constant replacement since we lose much fluid through sweating and voiding.

There are varied opinions about how much water is adequate to drink in a day.

Another school of thought has come up in recent times with some health experts concluding that 8×8 places us on the brink of dehydration. They suggest constant sipping of water throughout the day even when there is no thirst. The current recommendation by Institute of Medicine(IOM) is that the water intake should be up to 13 cups a day which is 104 days per day.

The most popular recommendation by health authorities is that an adult should take 2 liters of water which is equal to half a gallon or 8 -eight-ounce glasses in a day. It is called an 8x 8 rule and is very simple for everyone to remember.

Taking eight glasses is a good starting point, but the argument is that it does not have a basis on reliable and researched conclusion. Water makes up 60 percent of body weight and contributes to the functioning of all body systems.

The recommended intake considers these factors to define the recommended water intake.

IOM current recommends that adult (people aged 19 years and older) need to drink up to 3.7 liters of plain water per day. This measure is the overall fluid intake a day including anything else containing water that you consume as part of dies such as vegetables or fruits. Of this amount, the men should take more water which 13 cups (3.7 liters or 104 ounces). Women should take at least 9 cups which is 72 ounces.

Men require more water as their average free mass is higher thus heavier than women. Men also have more energy expenditure.Even after this effort to clarify the amount of water someone should take depending on age and gender, it is not so simple to determine how much your body needs as other factors could alter your needs. You may need depending on the conditions.

Pregnant or breastfeeding women should deviate from the above recommendations. Pregnant women of any age should take at least 80 ounces that is 8-ounce glasses each day. Breastfeeding women require even more water and need to increase their water intake to 13 cups, 104 ounces like adult men.

Children may be under 19, but they are at different stages of developing depending on their respective ages. Girls and boys aged 4-8 years should drink five cups or 40 ounces a day. The amount increases to 7-8 cups or 50-64 ounces from children aged 9 to 13 years. At ages 14 to 18, kids are almost in their adulthood and require taking more water. IOM recommends that they take 8 to 111 cups of water or 64-88 ounces.

Other considerations dictating how much water you should drink

You need to drink more water if you line at an altitude exceeding 8,200 feet above sea level. The reason is that higher sea level increases dehydration. Humidity at higher altitudes is lower making the sweat to evaporate quickly. You may fail to notice the amount of water you lose through exertion ad it requires replenishing. Oxygen levels at higher altitudes are lower creating the need to breathe in and deeper and faster which cause loss of more water through respiration. The rate at which you lose water is twice than at sea level.

If you exercise each day, add 1.5 -2.5 cups of water to your water intake. You should add even more if you work out for more than an hour or live at a place with a hot climate.

The body requires more fluids if you are losing water by vomiting, diarrhea or fever. You should drink more and even consult a doctor if the symptoms are extreme or persist for long. Your doctor could suggest that you add drinks with electrolytes to stabilize the electrolyte balance.

They regulate nerve and muscle function, hydrate the body, balance blood acidity and pressure, and help rebuild damaged tissue

Drinking enough water is essential in maintaining appropriate hydration of your body, health and good looks. It is essential to know and take the recommended every day.



Around 45% of the adults snore making them a subject of jokes or a nuisance to their partners. The cause of snoring is that airways become narrower making the air run into more resistance when breathing. It causes vibrations which is what we call snoring.

It is something that you can overcome with these natural methods

Refrain from eating fatty dairy food before bedtime as they cause mucus buildup in the throat reducing the pathway for the air to move into the throat and increasing snoring. Dairy products, bakes, and fried food cause nasal congestion.

Drink plenty of water to prevent nasal secretions and soft palate from becoming stickier and increase snoring. You achieve best results by drinking plenty of way throughout the day and not just before bed.

Elevating the head increases airflow through the nose and mouth to reduce or stop snoring. Elevating the head by around 4 inches makes the jaw and tongue to drop forward and open the airway.

Sleeping on your side is safer than your back which causes the tongue and tissue to slide backward increasing the chances of blocking the airway. Sleeping on your side will keep the tongue away from the passage into the throat thus preventing blocking which could snore. It is a simple technique that works well when your snoring is not serious. If you find it challenging to stop sleeping on your back, take a step of sewing a pocket on the back of your pajama or tee shirt and add place some tennis balls inside. It will make you uncomfortable every time you roll onto your back, and after a while, the habit of sleeping on your back will end and sort out your mild snoring problems.

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Stop the habit of drinking alcohol in the evenings as it has muscles relaxants that induce snoring. Relaxing muscles interferes with an inflow of air to eventually cause snoring. You should instead strive to open the airway.

Bedroom environment can cause or increase snoring. Dry weather cause congestion on the nose and airway thus causing snoring. If you snore, try sleeping in humid conditions. An ionizer that emits some negative ions into bedroom environment helps in cleaning the air to reduce or stop snoring.

You can stop snoring that beginning in your nose by keeping nasal passages open to increase the rate of airflow. The nose works like a narrow water hose. A small hose allows fast movement of water. Clogging in the nose due to cold or another type of blockage will slow fast flowing air causing vibrations that produce snoring.

Smoking or inhaling secondhand smoke irritates the nasal and throat membranes blocking the airways and promoting snoring. Quitting smoking provides quick relief to snoring. Sedative and sleeping pills also interfere with breathing by relaxing the muscles.

Allergens in the bedroom and the pillow can be a cause of snoring by causing allergic reactions. Dust mites can accumulate in the cushions to cause allergies that trigger snoring. You should also prevent pets from sleeping on your bed as animal dander is another irritant that will block your airways.

If you only feel the obstruction in your nose and throat at night, allergens or dander could be the cause of this irritation. You can solve the problem by putting your pillows in an air fluff cycle every two weeks and replace them after six months to keep allergens and dust mites to a minimum. You should also prevent pets from coming to your bedroom.

These tips are essential in preventing snoring and improving the quality of your sleep. If they do not work, find a practitioner who can introduce you to throat exercises tailored to stop snoring.



Sleep difficulties or disorder are changes in sleeping patterns due to various causes. These occurrences can have adverse effects on health.

These are the common types of sleep disorders

A persistent problem with falling or staying asleep. An overall inability to sleep characterizes insomnia but the cause can be another problem different from the disorder. Insomnia can be serious to the extent of causing sleeplessness for a full night. Most insomnia sufferers will wake too early for lack of sleep or feel sleepy in the day. Falling asleep at the most inappropriate times can be a signal of an underlying severe disorder.

Many people get mild insomnia due to medical causes or during stressful moments. About 6-10 percent of adults frequently experience insomnia to the level which it can be considered a disorder. Insomnia can cause psychological, physical and behavioral problems. Depression and anxiety worsen this sleep disorder. Physicians can treat it by determining the cause, then use regular medicinal, psychological and behavioral methods.

Obstructive sleep apnea is an intermittent blockage of airflow during sleep.

Sleep reduces the quality of breathing or stops it during sleep. It reduces the quality of restful sleep and increases sluggishness during the day. Sometimes sleep apnea can cause waking during the night as the body feels an urge to stop sleeping to get a proper breath.Snoring, snorting and gasping for air in sleep are common signs of sleep apnea. Many people with this disorder get severe disorders in the morning.

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Narcolepsy is a chronic sleeping disorder causing overwhelming drowsiness during the day.The classification for narcolepsy is excessive tiredness occurring throughout the day. People who suffer from this disorder will continuously nap. Some of them will unexpectedly fall asleep during inappropriate times such as when they are operating machinery which is dangerous to them and other people.

Common symptoms of narcolepsy are dream-like hallucinations at the onset of sleep and vivid dreams during the napping. If narcolepsy persists, it is likely to cause sleep paralysis a condition that hinders movement when falling asleep. It can also lead to a loss of muscle control.

This sleep disorder crops from an irresistible urge to keep moving legs more so in the evenings. The movement of legs is involuntary. Those who experience uncontrollable urges to jerk or move their limbs when awake could be suffering from restless leg syndrome. It makes the sleep at night to be restless, so in the morning, it feels as if there was no night’s sleep. The involuntary movement of legs makes the body to wake up throughout the night due because of the disturbance by severe jerking movement of the legs. The cause of RLS can be genetical or other medical conditions such as reduced levels of dopamine in the body. The disease causes an uncomfortable feeling. Those who suffer from RLS attempt to relieve the discomfort by rubbing and movement of the limbs.

Sleepwalking also called somnambulism is a condition that causes someone to wake up and walk around while still is prevalent in children, but they outgrow it by their teenage years although it can also occur in adults. Sleepwalking mostly occurs an hour or two after falling asleep. Often, it is a random and harmless event. There are rare manifestations of somnambulism that cause unusual behaviors such as climbing out of the house from a window.

Jet lag or flight fatigue is a sleep disorder affecting those who fly quickly across various time zones. It is temporary disorder causing insomnia, fatigue, and other symptoms caused by crossing different time zones hence disrupting an internal body clock. Recovery depends on the number of time zones that a traveler crosses as the body’s rate of adjustments is one-time zone or two a day.

Changes in waking and sleeping time like a change of shifts are leading causes of sleeping disorders. Some can end after changing sleeping habits, but others require medical intervention if they persist. A regular doctor o specialist will determine the cause of sleeping difficulties and the medication to solve the problem.



Sleeping difficulties or disorders are changes that affect sleep patterns and depth thus affecting the quality. Some of the signs of sleeping disorders are difficulty in falling asleep excess sleepiness during the day, increase movement and irregular breathing during sleep.

If the inability to sleep or disturbances while sleeping is to frequent and persist for long, the best way of ridding the problem is to get medical help. A primary care physician can diagnose the problem or make a referral to a sleep specialist.Sleep specialists are doctors who go for additional training in sleep medicine. It is a subspecialty in medical specialties including psychiatry, neurology, pulmonology or internal medicine.

Here are the most common types of treatments that doctors apply to treat various sleep disorders.

Everyone who has a sleep disorder can derive many benefits from developing routines and practicing good sleep hygiene to support getting an adequate amount of sleep. There are some sleep disorders such as insomnia which cause anxiety about sleep who solution lies putting a good routine in place. Sleepwalkers also show much improvement in their sleep difficulties. Sleep disorders such as narcolepsy might require supportive sleep routine that includes creating time for scheduled naps.

Many sleep disorders have a connection to a behavioral pattern which is the reason why many physicians prefer to use it as a treatment and management method for different sleeping disorders. Usually, therapy is the first line of treatment by sleep specialists when treating people with narcolepsy and insomnia. It is also applicable to people with other sleeping difficulties to help them develop coping strategies for dealing with social and emotional consequences of sleeping disorders.

Relaxation techniques and imagery exercises can help to treat sleep disorders especially Restless Leg Syndrome(RLS). Practicing yoga and meditating also helps the body to relax and be ready sleeping time as well as improve the quality of sleep. These methods are successful in improving the quality of sleep even for people who do not have sleeping disorders. People with insomnia can benefit by getting more sleep and reducing stress levels by exercising early in the day so that the evening time does not find the person too energized to sleep.

Many people know about the existence of sleep disorders when the condition is severe. The need to address the problem at this stage makes medication a conventional treatment for all the primary sleep disorders except for apnea. It is common for sleep specialists to administer certain medicine alone or with the other types of treatment.

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The major sleep disorders that require use of medication as the primary treatment option.

Narcolepsy – People suffering from narcolepsy get prescriptions to help inducing sleep that improves the overall quality of sleep. Physicians prescribe stimulant medications the help in decreasing the effects of sleepiness during the daytime. They also use antidepressants to combat other symptoms of narcolepsy like sleep paralysis, cataplexy, and hypnagogic hallucinations.

Insomnia- Patients who suffer from lack of sleep get drugs called hypnotics to help in inducing sleep and remaining asleep in the night.

Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS)- medications that doctors use to treat RLS work well with other medications. A doctor must consider case by case to determine the best combination. Collaborating two or more types of medicine has proven to be effective in alleviating symptoms.

Periodic Limb Movement- Doctors use this medication to treat this sleep disorder when they diagnose the existence of another order. Combined medicines for treating the two diseases simultaneously is sufficient for most of the cases.

REM behavior disorder- Medicine such as Clonazepam is almost always successful in eliminating the disorder, but there are also other medications that can control the behavior.

Sleepwalking- The common medications for treating sleepwalking are sedative and anti-depressants.

Treating sleep disorders does not have one solution. Like with other medical conditions, doctors prescribe a treatment plan fitting a patient after diagnosing the type of sleep disorder and possible causes including other medical conditions.



The skin protects the body from environmental aggressors, regulates temperature and looks. Exposure to elements affects the condition if the skin hence the need to improve it. You can enhance your skin by these simple natural ways.

It is essential to keep the skin clean, but many people make a mistake of washing and scrubbing excessively. Scrubbing the skin should be moderate with a soft cloth. Cleansing once a day during the night to remove dirt and makeup is enough. The skin will be clean the following day after a simple rinsing with water.

Water helps to hydrate the skin, and it is essential to take plenty amount as it reaches the other organs before the skin. Taking natural mineral water improves skin moisture softness and smoothness. Taking plenty washes harmful substances off the body making the skin more elastic and resilient this reducing appearance of wrinkles. It also makes the pores smaller.

Taking enough water helps to prevent blemishes by hydrating it to decrease the amounts of oil concentrated on the ski and maintain a proper balance of water and oil. An appropriate balance of the two reduces blemishes and breakouts.

Eating more fresh fruits especially those with citrus and fruits qualities. The Vitamin C in citrus fruits is an antioxidant which rids the body of harmful toxins giving the skin a glowing fresh look. It is also essential to reduce sugar intake as it causes acne and dull appearance all the time. Inflammatory foods like gluten and dairy are other foods to avoid because they are highly inflammatory causing a low-grade reaction in the body.

Makeup can improve or break the skin. Mineral cosmetics have more natural touch and contain minerals that make the skin to shine. They also help in reducing makeup damage on the skin.

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Stress has negative effects on all body parts including the skin. It causes severe acne as it increases production of hormones like cortisol that decrease the ability to fight the bacteria that cause. Stress increases wrinkling on the skin by allowing an increase in blood sugar after release. It encourages glycation process, a stress effect that takes place on the skin causing damage, hardening, quicker formation of wrinkles and lines. You can control stress by trying management techniques like deep breathing, yoga and meditation.

Exercises help to increase blood and nourish the skin cells. Increased blood flow takes more nutrients and oxygen to the cells in the skin and other organs. Blood flow also helps in carrying the waste product including free radicals from the cells. The act helps in indirect cleansing of the skin by flushing cellular debris from the system to the liver for neutralization of toxins. Regular exercises also help to tone the muscles and control stress which contributes to skin diminishing by influencing the functioning of sebaceous glands that produce oil in the skin.

Green tea has anti-inflammatory properties that help in soothing red or spotty complexion on the skin. Take the iced tea as hot beverages may worsen the redness. Green teas also contain EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) that prevents the destruction of collagen which causes wrinkles and sun-induced discoloration and damage. Collagen is an abundant protein that gives structure to the skin, hair, bones, nails, tendons and ligaments.

Exposure to intense sun rays can damage the skin by causing brown spots and wrinkling. UV rays from the sun can also penetrate the windows of your office or home. Most damage and cancers on the skin occur on the side of the upper body that gets more exposure from car or workplace window. Try wearing protective moisturizers.

The skin repairs daytime damages at night as sleep helps in limiting the release of cortisol and adrenaline that causes breakouts or other skin problems. Depriving the skin of rest increases stress on the skin hence the importance of getting at least 7 hours sleep each night. A relaxation break from the regular schedule also helps in eliminating pressure from the entire body and enhance looks including on the skin.

Sleep plays a big part in limiting cortisol. During sleep, the skin repairs the daytime damage. A lack of sleep puts stress on the skin, so make sure you have at least 7 hours of sleep is a must for healthy, stress-free skin.