Medical and medication management is a system that pharmacists use to work closely with doctors to ensure that their patients receive optimal outcomes from prescription medications that they take. It has led to the emergence of medication management therapy from covering a broad range of medical activities including:

A comprehensive review of prescription, possible interaction and side effects.
Performing patient assessment
Formulate medication plans both short and long-term
Improve communication between service providers and better documentation
Ensure instructional or directional based compliance through providing patient education
Medicine and medication management have gone a long way in creating a platform for healthcare providers and any other medical professionals to work with pharmacists to ensure that patients take drugs according to prescription instructions. The collaboration provides that patients get all the essential education on appropriate use of prescription from their specific also helps eliminates chances of abuse for other purposes than healing.

Medicine and medication functions with a proper schedule of ongoing medication. Scheduling works in favor of caregivers since in the medical management, they, pharmacists and patients work as one team to solve the existing medication problem.The doctors and pharmacists prepare a fact sheet of a patient for the caregiver to use as a guide for managing the patient’s medication. The formation of the team is to ensure that each person can collectively handle all variations of situations from simple to complex.

This practice helps medical teams to work as a team thus simplifying their work and ensuring that the drug achieves the desired outcomes, Patients are primary beneficiaries in the following ways.

Medical management helps people to keep track of their dosages and types of medicine to take in a day. The purpose of the drug is to treat and safe life but failing to take medication according to prescription prevents achievement of the planned outcome. Failing to take dosage according to manufacturer instructions can even cause adverse effects and worsen the infection.

Pharmacists who subscribe to medication management face help the patients who have difficulty in remembering the times for taking their medicine by inventing user-friendly strategies. For example, a pharmacist will give special pillboxes to the patient to enable the person or the caregiver about the precious timing of medication. Pill boxes are very helpful to senior citizens, people living with disability and the seriously ill. Healthcare providers cannot trust people encountering such challenges to keep proper track of their dosages. It could make them take an under dose which delays the healing or an overdose which could become fatal. A pillbox is an ordinary container with different slots to put medicine for different days hence the patient cannot skip or repeat a dose. There are also high technology pillboxes with timers and alarms from reminding the user to take medicine on the right schedule.

When pharmacists work together with physicians and caregivers, they will know if a patient has physical challenges and find ways to make taking medicine to be less hectic. For example, a pharmacist will recognize that a patient has eyesight problem and write the prescription labels in large fonts. For patients with hearing problems, members of the medication management team will speak louder to ensure that they hear everything or listen on their behalf if they notice a risk of missing out on some essential points.

Treatment of some diseases requires the use of various medications. Medication management helps the team to observe the patient interaction with prescription and early detection of adverse effects. It also enables the doctors and pharmacists to observe the symptoms together and determine whether it is necessary to prescribe all types of medicine or a fewer will serve the purpose. This exchange of views benefits the patient as the care team will make better decisions.

Medical management is an essential concept in helping patients to take medicine appropriately and get the desired outcome. It also enables everyone on the medical or caregiving team to know the patients who require attention due to their inability to take prescription such as difficulties in opening bottles, putting an eye or ear drops or take injections.


The significant characteristic of being overweight or obese is that both occur due to having excess body fat. The difference is just the degree of excess fat. Weight for height index called(BMI) body mass index helps to classify if someone is overweight or obese.

Ideal, Overweight and Obese Weight

You calculate BMI by determining a person’s weight and dividing it by square of his or height in meters. The formula is kg/m2.You use the same formula to calculate the BMI for men and women.

A BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is healthy, but 25 to 29.9 is overweight. A BMI of 30 or more shows that the person is obese.

Obesity also has categories as some people are more obese than others.

  • Class 1: BMI of 30 to 35
  • Class 2: BMI of 35 to 40
  • Class 3: BMI of 40 or more. Sometimes weight experts regard class 3 obesity as extreme or severe.

A substantial change in BMI in some person necessities the need to determine the cause even when a person is not under or overweight.


You should consider the age and gender to define the correct BMI and weight status in children and teen up to 19. The difference is that the body fat content in boys and girls differs as they mature.

You determine whether a child is overweight or has obesity by comparing BMI levels of their agemates using one of these steps:

  • Determine the weight in kilograms or use a converter if you know it by pounds.
  • Determine the height in meters or convert if you know it by inches.
  • Use the child weight in kilograms and the height in inches to determine the body mass index.The formula requires you to multiply the height by itself (height squared), e.g., 1.2m by 1.2 m.
  • Dividethe weight in kilograms it by height squared as above 3(a).

The result of above calculation is the child’s BMI that you should use to determine whether it is the healthy, overweight or obese range.

Healthy weight: 5th to less than 85 th percentile

Overweight: 85TH to less than 85th percentile

Obese: 95th or more percentile


Energy imbalance between the calories that the body consumes and uses up is the leading cause of excess body fat due to these factors.

  • Diet and activity- eating more calories than the amount that the body burns.
  • Lifestyle- Many people eat processed high carb diets with more harmful sugars and fats. They also live a sedentary lifestyle
  • Genetics- Genes can make some people more susceptible to weight gain after eating more food or inactive life. Such get overweight sooner or gain more weight than ordinary persons who share their lifestyle.
  • Medications and health conditions- Some hormone problems such as underactive thyroid or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can cause someone to be overweight and obese. Some medicine such as antidepressants, seizure medicines, and corticosteroids can also cause weight gain.
  • Lack of sleep, stress and emotional factors- Some people unknowingly eat more when they are angry, bored or stressed. Sleeping for less than recommended time increase the chances of getting obesity because the body does not release adequate hormones that control appetite and energy use. The body releases these hormones at night.


It is possible to prevent or reverse these conditions by taking healthier foods and limiting energy intake from total sugars and fats. The healthy foods that control weight gain are fruit, vegetable, legumes, nuts and whole grains.

Engaging in regular physical activity throughout the week, taking enough rest and living a stress-free life helps to keep weight in check also contributes to weight loss.

To be overweight or obese is a health problem thus individual effort only takes full effect when the affected persons can access healthy lifestyle. The people who are close to the obese and the society should support them in implementing the measures to cut weight.

Policymakers can also help by making policies that increase the supply of healthy foods, support regular physical activity at the workplace and restricting distribution of sugary, fatty foods.



Diarrhea is bowel movements at more than average frequency or decrease in the consistency of stools causing discharge of loose, watery stool. Most of the time increase in the frequency of bowel movement and reduction in consistency happen at the same time increasing the severity.

The number and size of stools that one passes within given period is the determinant for severity of diarrhoea.

Mild diarrhea: a few loose stools in a day

Moderate diarrhea: more than few diarrheas stools a day but not more than 10

Severe diarrhea: More than 10 loose and watery stools in 24 hours.

Treatment of diarrhea can be by medication, natural ways or combination of both.


Mild to moderate diarrhea due to some digestive problems can stop itself. Severe diarrhea or that which takes too long should get a doctor’s attention. An occasional bout especially traveller’s diarrhea that occurs after taking contaminates water or food does not leave you with many options except seeking quick treatment.

Getting over the counter medication can be helpful in increasing the consistency and reducing the frequency of bowel movement.Imodium(loperamide) and Kaopectate (bismuth subsalicylate) or Pepto-Bismol are some of the over the counter medications that you can buy without a prescription. The maximum time for using the OTC drugs is two days.

In most cases OTC medication is helpful in stopping diarrhea soon even within the same is comforting but it is essential to know that the cause of the problem is pouring of more water through the intestines to help in flushing out harmful bacteria or virus and manage disruption in the gastrointestinal system.

OTC drugs might not act on the parasites, bacteria or viruses in the system. They will only reduce visits to the toilet for a short time. Visiting a physician for diagnosis of the cause is essential.A doctor will treat the cause and administer the right medicine to treat the cause such ciprofloxacin or rifaximin for bacterial infections.A caregiver will also administer oral rehydration therapy(ORT) if diarrhea had caused dehydration.


Fortunately, natural ways can treat diarrhea for those with non-severe diarrhea or fear the side effects of medication. The primary focus should be a replacement of electrolyte and fluid to avoid the complications of dehydration.

These methods help in easing diarrhea.


The supplement has a three-way solution to solve diarrhea. It helps in self-regeneration of the intestinal wall and boosts the immune system to fight infectious microbes (that include those causing diarrhea). It also improves water and electrolytes absorption.


A superb natural replacement from sports drinks and saves the take from consuming the high content of artificial sweeteners or sugar. It also has, but this is natural which does not have side effects if you take in moderation. Coconut water helps in addressing dehydration by replenishing lost fluids and electrolytes.


Probiotic foods have good bacteria that help the body to fight off the pathogens that cause diarrhea. Probiotic-rich food such as yoghurt, fermented dairy products and probiotic supplement hasten the pace of ridding diarrhea from the gastrointestinal system.


Turmeric has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties that are essential in attacking the organisms that cause diarrhea. A teaspoon of turmeric powder mixed with a glass of cold or hot water is a useful tonic for the digestive system and a remedy for inflammatory or infectious diarrhea.

It is important to take much water and take nutritious diet to replace their loss through diarrhea. If vomiting occurs at the same time, it is essential to take a break from drinking or eating anything for three hours. When the vomiting stops, the best way of replenishing lost fluid is to sip small amounts of mineral-rich or pure water and homemade bone broth for an hour or two.

If vomiting accompanies diarrhea, rest your stomach by not eating or drinking anything for three hours. As soon as vomiting stops, sip small amounts of pure water or mineral-rich, homemade bone broth for one to two hours.



Diarrhea is liquid bowel movement at unusually frequent intervals. Diarrhea happens occasionally but can be uncomfortable and dangerous if it becomes persistent. It could even be a sign of the more severe condition. Diarrhea can happen due to one of these causes.


Viruses cause inflammation in the stomach and intestines leading to a manifestation of viral gastroenteritis or stomach also called stomach flu. Rotavirus, viral hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, Norovirus and Norwalk virus are some of the viruses that cause diarrhea. Viral diarrhea is highly contagious as the virus can spread quickly through close contact with infected people, contaminated water and food. It spreads fast in close quarters such as schools, nursing care homes, cruise ships and other shared facilities.


Viruses cause inflammation in the stomach and intestines leading to a manifestation of viral gastroenteritis or stomach also called stomach flu. Rotavirus, viral hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, Norovirus and Norwalk virus are some of the viruses that cause diarrhea. Viral diarrhea is highly contagious as the virus can spread quickly through close contact with infected people, contaminated water and food. It spreads fast in close quarters such as schools, nursing care homes, cruise ships and other shared facilities.

Bacterial gastroenteritis that occurs due to an infection in the gut after contact with harmful bacteria causes inflammation on the stomach and intestines. Some people call it food poisoning. Diarrhea is one of the symptoms together with vomiting and severe abdominal cramps.

Some parasites such as cryptosporidium salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Giardia lamblia cause Bacterial gastroenteritis. Contaminates water or food causes transmission of parasites and bacteria to the body. Diarrhea caused by bacteria or parasite infection when travelling is usually called traveller’s diarrhea. Some bacteria called Clostridium difficile infection can attack and cause diarrhea especially after a dose of antibiotics. Bacterial infections are common although viruses are the cause of many gastrointestinal diseases.


Many medications can be a cause of bacteria as it is a side effect of many medicines. A good example is antibiotics. Antibiotics destroy the bad and good bacteria thus disturbing a natural balance in the intestines. Other drugs that are likely to cause diarrhea are cancer medications and antacids containing magnesium. Medications cause diarrhea by causing the intestine muscles to contract or by drawing water into the gut. Diarrheas caused by medication is usually mild and clears up without treatment. However, a more severe type of diarrhea can occur when taking antibiotics or after finishing the dosage. The cause is usually Clostridium difficile bacteria. Taking too much laxative may also cause diarrhea.


A variety of surgeries in or around the digestive tract or to allow gallbladder removal are a cause of short-term diarrhea as a side effect. In most cases, it stops medical attention, but if it intensifies, you should consult a doctor. Resection of a part in the large or small bowel can cause diarrhea due to the removal of a portion of the gut that absorbs water.

Some people have diarrhea after undergoing abdominal surgery or gallbladder removal. Other surgeries also increase overgrowth of bacteria in the small bowel to cause inflammation and diarrhea. Removing a gallbladder may cause diarrhea by making the bile salts to irritate the colon and causing water leakage into the colon lumen.


Lactose intolerance is an inability to break down lactose, a type of natural sugar. Lactose is a common in dairy products like yoghurt or milk. The cause of intolerance to lactose is the stoppage by small intestine to make enough enzyme lactase for digesting and breaking down the lactose. Undigested lactose settles in the large intestine and interacts with the bacteria that usually reside here. The interaction causes a condition called lactose deficiency with symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating and gas.It occurs after 30 -120 minutes of ingesting dairy products that containing lactose.


Amebiasis is a parasitic infection of the intestines. Protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is the cause. Loose stool is one of the symptoms of amebiasis. Others are stomach pain and abdominal cramping.


Food poisoning can cause severe diarrhea, nausea and vomiting because of taking toxic contaminated food. Food poisoning can cause diarrhea from 1 hour to 28 days. If diarrhea resists for more than 3 days, it is potentially life-threatening.A food allergy occurs when the immune system produces an abnormal reaction to some food or drink. Most cases of food allergies occur in children.

There are different causes of diarrhea and most of the time doctors treat it together with underlying symptoms for complete recovery.



Premature birth is that which occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy. A pregnancy that lasts for more time takes about 40 weeks with a difference of days among different women and pregnancies for the same woman. Risks factors for premature birth include the previous occurrence of the same or having twins or triplets in the womb.

Premature birth means that the baby will require more intense care in the nursery, require more medication and sometimes surgery. Although some incidents of premature birth cannot be prevented, the good news to women is that you can lower chances of getting a baby before time. Living a healthy lifestyle and taking the measures below that guarantee the safety of the pregnancy.



Many infections can cause premature birth as immunity in a pregnant woman is lower and a minor infection will compromise it even further.

Vaccination is one of the best ways of preventing infections. Another essential preventive measure is to improve general hygiene. Pay more than usual attention to washing hands before eating, after leaving the washroom and before touching the mouth. Maintaining oral hygiene and cleanliness in the home and general surroundings are essential.

Women with any infection should get treatment quickly and inform a doctor about their pregnancy because some medication could be unsafe at this stage. STI such as herpes, syphilis, and gonorrhea are especially dangerous to the fetus.

SATION OF SMOKING AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTIONWhen a pregnant woman smokes, she increases the likelihood of causing problems to the pregnancy and even harming the growing baby. Smoking has a strong link to premature labor. Women who smoke more cigarettes increase chances of premature birth. Reducing the risk getting a baby prematurely requires smoking women to stop or at least cut down the number of cigarettes or cigars. Smoking reduces the amount of oxygen reaching the baby thus impairing its growth. An average smoker doubles chances of giving birth too early. The baby is likely to be underweight and chances of stillbirth are higher.

Taking alcohol especially excessively is a risk factor for premature birth. It prevents full development by suppressing the growth of cells. Alcohol can pass from mother’s to baby’s bloodstream to cause other defects such as damage to the brain, or spinal cord cells. Giving up completely is the safest action for pregnant women to take.


Drugs during pregnancy cause reactions that are likely to harm the baby and increase the risk of premature birth. Substances such as cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and heroin are capable of causing harm to the baby and its mother. Some women who use recreational drugs stop after realizing they are pregnant but it is important to get away from the habit. Those with dependency on the drug are likely to get an urge of using the drugs on occasions which is dangerous to the unborn baby because of the chemical content.

These drugs increase the chance of premature birth. They also alter perceptions and impair judgment. The misguided judgments make many women make wrong lifestyle choices that increase the risk of premature delivery. If the baby survives, it is likely to suffer from withdrawal symptoms and development issues.


Food poisoning is dangerous for pregnancy as it can cause infection, premature delivery or stillbirth. It also causes unpleasant experience by causing contact vomiting, diarrhea, nausea and dehydration which can increase anxiety.

It is important to store in a clean place to keep toxins, bacteria or viruses at bay. Another essential step is to avoid certain foods that could contain bacteria. These include uncooked foods, unpasteurized cheeses and raw fish like sushi or meat such as carpaccio because they could be carrying harmful E.Coli. Any surface or utensils they touch needs cleaning with disinfection. It is also important for women to wash their hands before eating and consume foods before the use-by date.

The above and any other protective are essential for pregnant women to lower likelihood of premature